by Martha B. Caldwell
November 1940 (Vol. 9, No. 4), pages 347 to 370.
Transcribed by lhn;
digitized with permission of the Kansas Historical Society.
AN imperative need in settling a new country is a place where prospective settlers may stay while selecting a homesite, and where they may lodge their families while getting a home in readiness. Officers of the New England Emigrant Aid Company took this into account in their attempt to settle Kansas in 1854. Their plan of operations provided for the construction of boarding houses at various places, each large enough to accommodate three hundred persons,  and at their meeting on August 26, 1854, the trustees instructed S. C. Pomeroy, the Kansas agent, to purchase mills and erect "Receiving Houses." 
After the arrival of the second Emigrant Aid party in Lawrence on September 15, 1854, a temporary building called a "hay tent" was erected and named the Pioneer Boarding House. It was a mere makeshift. As described by the Rev. Richard Cordley, pioneer minister who came to Kansas in 1857, it was built by setting up two rows of poles a distance apart and bringing them together at the top, then thatching the sides with prairie hay. The gable ends were built up with sod and contained the doors and windows. The floor was the hard sod. In this building, fifty by twenty feet, settlers obtained room and board and held religious services and other public functions. It was here that Plymouth church was organized October 15, 1854. When this "hotel" burned in the autumn, another, the St. Nicholas, was built in the same way but with some improvements. The sides were banked with sod to the height of four or five feet and the inside was lined with cotton cloth. 
The "hay tent" was to serve only until a permanent hotel could be erected, and the company's agents in Kansas, Charles Robinson and S. C. Pomeroy, were requested to "have completed as early as practicable the projected . . . Hotel at Lawrence City."  The work began possibly in October, for on November 2, 1854, Robinson informed the executive committee that the cellar was dug. 
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The building of this hotel stretched over a period of nineteen months, and, in fact, it was never formally opened. Many circumstances intervened to retard the construction. Lack of funds was perhaps the greatest drawback, for the Emigrant Aid Company was nearly always on the verge of bankruptcy. As early as November 29, Robinson advised the committee of the suspension of operations "partly" for want of money.  Inability to get building materials was also a handicap. To have lumber shipped from St. Louis was slow and expensive, and the sawmill set up by the company was unable even to supply the demands of private individuals. The border troubles of 1855 and 1856 retarded the work to a great extent. It is also probable that the agents were not as attentive to the company's interests as they might have been, especially as they were allowed to engage in business for themselves, and to take advantage of the great financial possibilities in land speculation. In 1856 the company refused one of them, Charles Branscomb, the privilege of making private investments and revoked the permission previously granted to Pomeroy. 
Late in December workmen started to lay the cellar wall, and early the next month they began digging a well adjoining the hotel foundation. The plan was to dig fifty or sixty feet so as to have water in abundance. 
The company had hoped to have the building finished for the early spring emigration, but were forced to abandon the idea. A letter to emigrants in the Herald of Freedom advised them not to look for hotel accommodations as it would be impossible to finish a first-class hotel for several months. "But," it added, "our accommodations are good enough for strong-hearted pioneers, who expect to make their own comforts."  However, the agents set about to look for a proprietor. They advertised in a Lawrence paper under the title "Hotel to Let" for an experienced tenant who had capital to furnish the house in good style. Such a person was advised to see S. C. Pomeroy.  The result of this advertisement is not known but the building was subsequently leased to Shalor W. Eldridge, who with his mother was operating the company's hotel, the American House, in Kansas City.
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Little progress was made during the spring months. By April 28 the basement wall was finished ready for the timbers. The work was delayed in part by inability to get lumber. This scarcity of material finally forced the company to revise its plan and construct a stone and concrete instead of a frame building. The flooring, ready-grooved and matched, would be procured from St. Louis.  The contract was given to Benjamin Johnson, and on May 14, work was resumed.  The dilly-dallying apparently exhausted the patience of the editor of the Kansas Free State. He burst forth in an article of July 9, denouncing the Emigrant Aid Company, declaring that the company's mill was a "perfect nuisance" and that the hotel had been building ever since the "Company had an existence," and still lingered. He considered that the delay had been more injury to the town than all other things combined; that hundreds of persons had left the place for the want of a "comfortable hotel to stop at"; and that the company would neither do anything nor give up the work to individuals who would put it up immediately. He demanded that it be ready for the immense emigration that would "pour in here in the fall."  Other grumblings came to the ears of the trustees. One Edward Jones, for example, complained that the agents had refused to fulfill a contract with him for the construction of the building. 
Work continued intermittently. On July 24, Robinson wrote to Webb that the building was nearly ready for the finishing lumber which Pomeroy was to get in St. Louis. Robinson was seemingly beginning to realize the necessity of a hotel and reported that it "should not be delayed a moment," as it was much needed. ". Besides," he added, "the character of the Co. will suffer if allowed to stand unfinished & unoccupied while the fall emigration is coming in."  Early the next month Pomeroy informed the committee that he had bought the doors and flooring,  and on August 20, Webb wrote from Lawrence, "The little Boat Lizzie having on board our Hotel flooring, doors, &c. arrived here safely last night, and the workmen it is hoped will recommence operations on the building to day." 
By October 6, 1855, the hotel was enclosed, the roof on and the
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first and second floors finished. The partitions were being put up and the windows in. It was given the name, Free State Hotel.  The building was considered the best in the territory and was said to have presented "a formidable appearance in contrast with the humble tenements in its immediate vicinity."  In its unfinished condition the hotel served the community for social gatherings and other purposes. The first social event of importance was a "Military festival" given by Kansas Rifles No. 1  on November 15, 1855. Elaborate invitations were issued and much preparation made to insure success. A hunting contest engaged in by the Rifles the day before supplied an abundance of wild game for the tables. The evening was cold and rainy, with mud shoe-top deep; nevertheless about five hundred people of "all ages, sexes, and conditions, and every shade of political opinion" filled the rooms.  According to a guest's account, the parlor and dining room were thrown into one with the Rifles' large U. S. flag draped over the arch of the folding doors. Two rows of tables extending the length of the hall were loaded with squirrel, rabbit, prairie chicken, wild turkey, and one roast pig, together with cakes and pastries.  It was a new experience to a settler to step into a room large enough for six or eight sets to be dancing the cotillion, while hundreds of spectators looked on. Mr. Lyman, the most successful hunter, was not present to receive his reward, a rosette, but Captain Thoms, the next successful, was presented a cake by the ladies. 
Mrs. Robinson characterized the party as a typical New England gathering with the exception of a few who "by their dress, tinsel ornaments, or their peculiarity of speech, showed that their home was further west."  The festival was said to have been the "most gorgeous affair" which had yet "come off" in the territory. 
A little over a week later the hotel served an entirely different purpose when the killing of Charles Dow by Franklin Coleman precipitated the Wakarusa War. Almost instantly the town became a military camp. Free-State companies from the neighboring towns and communities rushed to the aid of Lawrence and the hotel was
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then turned into barracks for the soldiers and headquarters for the officers.  After a week's siege efforts were made to restore peace. On December 7, Governor Shannon with his suite drove into the besieged town to consult with the committee of safety. He was said to have presented a stately appearance riding over the prairie in his double seated carriage with mounted guards riding before and after.  He entered the building with General Robinson. The party moved through the hall where on a table lay the body of Thomas Barber, murdered the night before by a Proslavery man, and up the unfinished stairway to the council chamber on the third floor. Here after an extended conference the treaty of peace was arranged and signed. The citizens of Lawrence were overjoyed at the peaceful termination of the trouble, and to show their "willingness to accept" the settlement and to give pledges of their "good offices in the future," they gave a peace party on the evening of December 10.  The hotel was again the scene of merriment and happiness. Governor Shannon, Sheriff Jones and the invaders were invited. The governor had pressing business at his office and could not accept, but Jones and some of his followers were there. The ladies had spread long tables with appetizing food, the Lawrence band furnished the music, and Robinson, Lane and others supplied the speeches. The festivities continued far into the night. The next day the soldiers were dismissed. 
The closing scene in the Wakarusa War drama was the military funeral for Thomas Barber on December 16. Settlers for many miles around gathered in the long dining room where boards were brought in to provide extra seats. The military companies were there. General Robinson delivered the funeral oration and James H. Lane and the Rev. Levin B. Dennis spoke briefly. The procession then moved slowly across the prairie over Mount Oread to the open grave in the pioneer cemetery where the body was interred with military honors. 
The unfinished hotel continued to be the center of social functions. There was a Christmas party of about fifty couples  and on January 1, 1856, a New Year's ball was given. G. Douglas Brewerton,
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the New York Herald correspondent, attended the ball and described it as follows:
Armed with these credentials, for which our Executive friend will be pleased to accept our thanks, we inquired as to the most fashionable hour at which we might venture to become visible-were told eight o'clock, and accordingly entered the ball-room, an unfinished dining-hall in the Free State Hotel, at the hour indicated. We were attired for the occasion, in a suit of black, which was "built" in New York, and has been considered creditable upon Broadway; but we might have spared yourself some trouble, for the first gentleman we met sported a short, drab overcoat, a very long red comforter, and corduroy pants, which were fitly finished at the bottom, by a pair of boots, long innocent of blacking, but bearing most unmistakable signs, to more senses than one, of being thoroughly greased; and this biped was a fair specimen, by the way, of the very free and easy manner in which the male portion of the assemblage were rigged out. We felt out of place, but it was too late to "retrograde," so we summoned up our brass, pulled down our left collar, turned up our sleeves, deranged the set of our pants, stuck our hands into our breeches pockets, donned our hat, and then went into conversation-pending the arrival of the ladies, who were holding on for the music-with our next neighbor. . .
As the room filled up, each gentleman was supplied with a diminutive paper ticket, which tickets had been previously numbered by the floor manager from one to thirty inclusive. The object of this was to give each guest his number, so that-as the room was too small to accommodate more than four sets, for quadrilles, with variations, were the only dances attempted-each man, with his partner, got a "fair shake" to dance in their turn, for you were not allowed to take your place on the floor until your number had been called. Well, to make a long story short, we danced with sundry of the Kansas belles, and saw neither lace-ruffles nor fancy undersleeves, hoops nor flounces, low-necked dresses nor embroidered handkerchiefs, but everything passed off smoothly, for all that. The dancing-hall, however, merits a more extended description. It was, as we have already stated, an unfinished room, with rough stone walls, destitute of plaster, and a broken window or two. At one side of the room a carpenter's bench was shoved up against the wall, to make way for the trippers upon the "light fantastic toe," while a cooking-stove graced either end of the apartment, and furnished a heater, which we regret to say, didn't warm the room. As for candlesticks, each window had a slip of board fastened across the sash, with nails driven in at uncertain intervals, so as to support the candles, which threw their flickering light upon this gay and festive scene. At midnight we had supper; that is to say, we ranged ourselves upon the long wooden benches,-which surrounded the room-to the number of some eighty souls or more, when, being "all set," at a given signal . . . two men entered, bearing between them a piece of plank, on which were ranged plates, containing a triangle of cold pie, some raisins, and a stick of candy each-more or less, as the lawyers say-this was followed up by a second edition of planks, and men who served everybody-no lens volens-with a cup of hot coffee; then came cakes, "fearfully and wonderfully" made, and then back came the plank-bearers,
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who removed the fragments of the feast, whereupon the dancers went to work again, and we went home to bed. . . " 
After the Border trouble incidents, efforts were again made to complete the hotel. Pomeroy reported on December 12, 1855, that the plastering was being done and that Eldridge was "taking up Furniture. . . ."  A rumor in January, 1856, that the Free-State assembly might adjourn from Topeka to Lawrence gave a new impetus to the work. The move was being considered because Topeka had inadequate accommodations and no fortifications.  February 15 was the time set for the completion of the building, but the deadline passed. During March between twenty and thirty men were constantly employed,  and on April 12, the papers announced the glad news that the Free-State Hotel was finished. The following detailed description appeared in the Herald of Freedom:
The building is on the corner of Massachusetts and Winthrop [Seventh] streets, fronting on Massachusetts street; 50 feet front, 70 feet back; three stories above the basement; contains 50 separate apartments, besides a hall in each story. The basement is divided into three rooms, each 18 feet square-two to be used as pastry and meat kitchens, the other as storehouse or cellar. The first story is 11 feet from floor to ceiling, is divided into 9 rooms; the dining hall 18 feet wide and 47 feet long; hall 9½ feet wide, entire length of building; Gentlemen's parlor, 18 feet square; Ladies' parlor, 18x20; Reading Room, 18 feet square; sitting room, 16 x 18; two bed-rooms, 9 feet square; office, 6 x 14; side hall from office, with entrance on Winthop street; main entrance on Massachusetts street; two flights of stairs to second story~second story 10 feet from floor to ceiling; 18 rooms-six of them 11 x 18, balance 10 feet square; hall entire length of building. Third story 9 feet from floor to ceiling; same number of rooms, same dimensions as the second story; stairs leading to roof, which is flat, and affords a fine promenade and a splendid view of the surrounding scenery. There are thirty or forty port-holes in the walls, which rise above the roof, plugged up now with stones, which can be knocked out with a blow of the, butt of a Sharps rifle. The apartments are papered and well ventilated.
The entire cost of the Hotel probably exceeds $20,000. The out-houses are of the neatest kind. The stable, in the rear, is not yet finished, tho' the walls are up. It is calculated to accommodate fifty horses, and give shelter to vehicles. Mr. Geo. W. Hunt, formerly of Fitchburg, Mass., had the contract of the Woodwork, and Mr. Benj. Johnson, formerly of North East, Erie county, Pa., of the Stone and Masonry work. These gentlemen have filled their contracts in the most satisfactory and praiseworthy manner. Both of them are superior practical mechanics, and their first job in Kansas will be the best recommenda
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tion they can possibly give. The Hotel and grounds occupy four lots-50 x 125 feet each-two on Massachusetts and two on Vermont streets. One of them, (on the south of the Hotel), is to be devoted entirely to shrubbery. A neat fence will enclose the whole.
The building is now complete-is the handsomest and handiest House west of St. Louis-and with Col. Shaler Eldridge, formerly of, East Hampton, Mass., as Landlord, will throw open its doors for the reception of guests on or before the first of May next. Col. Eldridge is an old landlord-is now one of the proprietors of the American Hotel at Kansas City-and understands precisely what the traveling public want. 
During the month of April, Eldridge was busy furnishing the new hotel. The furniture, purchased in St. Louis and Boston, was shipped by steamboat to Kansas City and from there hauled by teams to Lawrence. The cost of furnishing was said to have been something over five thousand dollars. G. Williams of the firm of Gliddon & Williams of Boston offered to furnish the ladies' parlor in a "superb style" free of charge, presumably as an advertisement.  The store rooms and cellar were well filled. But before the furniture arrived and was put in place, noted guests appeared-the congressional committee, sent to investigate fraudulent elections in Kansas. The commission consisted of William Howard, John Sherman, and Mordecai Oliver with four clerks, one reporter and three sergeants at arms. A group of Lawrence citizens instantly came to the proprietor's aid and relieved his embarrassment by helping put the rooms in order. 
Hostilities reopened in the spring when Sheriff Jones, attempting to serve warrants growing out of the Wakarusa War and other difficulties, was shot. He was taken to the Free-State Hotel and afterwards to Franklin. About a week later, early in May, the grand jury meeting at Lecompton recommended to the court that the Free-State Hotel and the printing presses at Lawrence be destroyed. The finding for the hotel read thus:
Also that we are satisfied that the building known as the Free-State Hotel in Lawrence has been constructed with a view to military occupation and defense, and regularly parapetted and port-holed for the use of cannon and small arms, and could only be designed as a stronghold for resistance to law, thereby endangering the public safety and encouraging rebellion and sedition to the country; and we respectfully recommend that steps be taken whereby this nuisance may be removed 
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When, on May 6, the grand jury summoned Andrew H. Reeder to appear before it to testify and he refused, an attachment was issued. Reeder defied Deputy Marshal Fain to arrest him. Thereupon United States Marshal Donalson called a posse to help serve warrants. Donalson with his party appeared in Lawrence, served his warrants without resistance, and after eating a good dinner at the Free-State Hotel, rode back to his headquarters and dismissed his posse. Immediately Sheriff Jones summoned the posse to his aid.
The Free-State Hotel was not yet opened, but in anticipation of this event the proprietors had a set of rules and regulations printed for the conduct of their guests. The rules bear the date of May 10, and were among the last products of the Herald of Freedom press before its destruction. A facsimile of these rules is printed with this article.
Under pretense that he had an order from the court, Sheriff Jones and his posse rode up to the hotel and warned the occupants to get their things out. Colonel Eldridge was said to have replied, "You may burn it, but every time you burn this hotel I will build another and add a story to it."  Shots fired from the cannon and other weapons had little effect upon the stone building. An attempt was then made to blow it up by setting off kegs of powder in the basement. When this failed the building was set on fire from the inside and in a short time was in ruins. The two printing offices were also destroyed and the presses broken into pieces.
Undismayed by their loss, the Emigrant Aid Company almost immediately set about to rebuild. At its meeting on June 14 the executive committee instructed Pomeroy to prepare the cellar walls at an expense not to exceed $2,000.  A week later the committee again considered the building problem. It decided to advise Colonel Eldridge to clear the ruins and rebuild the foundation, making it as he suggested four feet wider. Doctor Cabot was asked to have his brother, an architect, draw plans and make estimates so that they could "proceed understandingly, and make the Hotel appropriations and expenditures, judiciously and economically. . . ." To raise funds, the committee decided to send subscription books to each director, "requesting his personal exertions in obtaining additional stock subscriptions or donations, to enable the Company to rebuild its Hotel at Lawrence." It was thought that five hundred dollars in stock or subscription from each would furnish ample means. The
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directors were to report on July 3, and the books were to be turned in August 1.  The company had also instituted a claim against the government for the destruction of their hotel, and Pomeroy was ordered to remain in Washington to urge this claim. 
The executive committee was determined to proceed with the building. On June 27, C. J. Higginson of the executive committee wrote to Charles Branscomb directing him to go to Lawrence and take charge of the building of the hotel.  On the same day Webb wrote to S. N. Simpson: "We have decided to rebuild the Hotel, and the busy hum of active preparation will soon again be heard in Lawrence."  And to G. W. Hunt he wrote: "The Hotel will be rebuilt, and the work commenced forthwith, so that the structure may be ready for occupancy the ensuing Fall." 
The raising of funds did not proceed too well and the committee thought out a more convincing appeal. There was much suffering and want in Lawrence and other parts of the territory which would necessitate relief. The committee decided that the least objectionable way of giving this relief would be to furnish work, believing that many only temporarily in want would refuse to accept charity but would welcome an opportunity to earn wages. They therefore appealed to the people to subscribe for stock in the company upon the condition that the funds were to be employed for the hotel and mills. The money subscribed would be used to hire the needy in rebuilding the hotel. Those who subscribed would then have the satisfaction of knowing that while they were making a good investment they were at the same time assisting in a "meritorious charitable movement." 
Notwithstanding the uncertainty of funds work began on July 10, when Branscomb contracted with Hugh O'Neill for the removal of the debris .48 O'Neill was to begin work at once and have the site cleared within sixteen days.  In the meantime the executive committee "empowered" the conference committee "to authorize Mr. Branscomb to proceed with the work . . . as rapidly as in their judgment it may be advisable." 50 On August 6 they sent him the
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plans for the basement, instructing him to begin laying the foundation at once, "conforming in all respects to the plan" and not to render himself liable for more money than he had at his command.  Again on October 1, the committee advised Branscomb that the rebuilding of the hotel was in his hands, and if he thought affairs in the territory warranted, he was to contract for the construction of the basement wall according to the plan in his possession. He was again warned not to spend more than $2,000 without further instructions.  But the committee was beginning to lose its enthusiasm for hotel building. In answer to a letter of Robinson who was urging the importance of continuing the work, Webb answered that the company wanted to make improvements at all of its settlements, but its means were limited, and besides the "nature and extent" of its interests seemed "imperfectly understood"; that its shares in Lawrence had been altered and realtered until nothing was definite and until these had been placed beyond all "reasonable contingency" it would be unwise to make further investments. 
However Branscomb went ahead with the building, contracting with Elijah A. Deelan on October 23 for excavating the cellar at thirty-five cents per cubic yard and with T. L. Whitney and Joseph Low on November 3 for the masonry. On November 5 he made an agreement with William Perry for making twenty-four window frames and one door frame of the best quality of pine. 
At a meeting on November 7, the executive committee discussed the feasibility of discontinuing the work until spring and voted to leave it to the judgment of Pomeroy and Branscomb. If they thought it unwise to proceed they were to draw the balance of the letter of credit and apply it on the mill freight charges.  But at their meeting two weeks later the committee themselves decided that the work should not continue beyond the fulfillment of the existing contracts until more funds were secured. They also decided that the building ought not to cost more than $12,000 and certainly not to exceed $15,000.  Branscomb had previously estimated the cost at $25,000 or $30,000.
Higginson accordingly informed Branscomb of the action of the committee. He advised him to put boards over the tops of the base
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ment walls to protect them from injury during the winter weather. "We have not at any time," he wrote, "contemplated building more than the basement this Autumn, and the present position of affairs in the Territory induces the Com. to turn their attention and means now to establishing the Mills." He also urged Branscomb to find ways of reducing the cost, for the committee would not again spend so much money on a hotel. 
Meanwhile the company's agents in the territory were urgently begging that the building be pushed with all haste. On December 1, Branscomb wrote to the committee that a hotel similar to what they had proposed was "absolutely demanded by the wants and necessities of the community and the Territory." "It is a matter of general complaint," he asserted, "how badly we are provided for in that respect." He was sure that the contract for the remainder of the building should be made at once. On December 5 he again advised the committee to make an estimate and determine whether $25,000 was too much for the building. He thought that the work contracted for would be completed before January. 
Webb answered Branscomb on December 31, explaining that every member of the committee was anxious to complete the hotel at the "earliest practicable period," but how soon that would be was questionable. He said that there was a difference of opinion as to the amount to expend on the building due to the fact that their means were limited and that there were other pressing calls. He also told him that their other settlements were in need of accommodations as well as Lawrence. Webb then gave his own personal opinion as follows:
The more I reflect upon the matter, the more convinced am I, that our proper course was to have put up at each of the Free-State Towns a plain; substantial building at a cost of some $2,000, at which good accommodations could be furnished on reasonable terms, and at a rate within the means of the greater portion of those for whose comfort & convenience we should in the first place look out. An expensive Hotel would be a desirable ornament to a Place, and would undoubtedly attract strangers and induce them to tarry longer than they otherwise would and probably be the means of their expending and perhaps investing some of their surplus funds; but the cost of, and consequent charges at, such an establishment, would necessarily debar most new settlers from enjoying its advantages.- As a matter of pride I wish to see the Hotel arise with increased splendor and enlarged dimensions; but unless we obtain our claim against [the] government, I do not see how we can afford to indulge in such a luxury. I of course in these remarks am only expressing my individual sentiments. The Ex. Com. may perhaps yet see the
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way clear to go on with the work in the Spring. Your estimate of the cost will be presented at the meeting on Friday next. As already stated to you there is a strong sentiment prevailing in the Committee, that acting as they are in trust for a Company they should not make further investments or expenditures in Lawrence until the various conflicting claims are adjusted, and the Co's. rights and interests are placed beyond risk from any of the contestants. . . " 
The new year arrived and the prospects for the building were no brighter. The stone work of the basement was not yet finished. The executive committee thought of modifying its plan so as to have the lower story fitted up for stores. Members of the committee were even considering the possibilities of erecting a block of stores instead of a hotel as being a less expensive and more remunerative project. The latter plan they were considering the more since they understood that certain individuals were engaged in hotel building, and one of the principles of the company was not to compete with individual enterprise.  Nothing more was done and on January 16, Branscomb informed them that the winter was cold and nothing could be done until spring. 
It was perhaps a great relief to the committee to receive a letter from S. W. Eldridge dated February 2 in which he proposed to purchase the hotel foundation, stable and the three lots connected therewith. Eldridge, who was in Boston at the time, offered five thousand dollars for the property, five hundred dollars down payment and the rest within sixty days from the acceptance of the proposition. The committee called a special meeting for February 7, to consider the offer. After some deliberation it was voted to authorize Branscomb to convey the property to Eldridge upon the following conditions: That he should pay the five thousand dollars to the treasurer of the company on or before April 7, 1857, or forfeit the five hundred dollars. That he should build a hotel according to the plan in the possession of the company, any alterations to be approved by them. That he should assume the contract for the construction of the basement and deposit one thousand dollars as security before being given possession. That the stone and other materials on the lots which had been sold to Whitney & Low were not to be included in the sale.  Eldridge later complained of the construction the committee put upon the agreement, insisting that the five thousand dollars included all the company had paid and were to pay on existing contracts. 
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By February 13, Eldridge had deposited the initial payment and requested that the committee modify its stipulations so as to require him only to erect a first class hotel.  Branscomb was forthwith instructed to transfer the property to Eldridge when he had paid forty-five hundred dollars in cash, and to take special care that nothing be done to impair in any way the company's title until the actual payment was made. He was also authorized to cancel Mallory & Earle's lease of the hotel stable. 
Eldridge had trouble raising the money but by June 22 he had completed the payments and had taken possession of the property.  In partnership with his three brothers, he immediately began work on the building. On August 6 the Lawrence Republican noted that the immense foundation and cross walls were finished and the bricklaying had commenced. Under the new management the building advanced rapidly. The work continued through the severe cold weather in November and early in December the walls were up and the roof was being put on. It was the intention to have the hotel completed by the opening of spring. The Eldridge brothers received much praise for continuing the work in the face of so many obstacles. 
Like the Free-State Hotel, the building before its completion became a popular place for social gatherings. The first large event was a ball given on January 29, 1858, in compliment to the Eldridge brothers. The public was invited through the Lawrence papers under the caption:
"TRUTH CRUSHED TO EARTH SHALL RISE AGAIN."
FREE-STATE HOTEL BALL.
A committee of thirty-nine in charge of the affair included Charles Robinson, James H. Lane, C. K. Holliday, H. Miles Moore, P. B. Plumb, S. N. Wood, Martin Conway, O. E. Learnard, G. W. Deitzler and many other prominent persons. Admission tickets, with supper included, were five dollars. The proceeds were to go toward the hotel furnishings, and thereby help in some measure to retrieve Colonel Eldridge's loss in the destruction of the Free-State Hotel. Nothing was left undone to make the party the "most elegant" ever
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given in Kansas. The well-known caterers, H. C. Whitley & Co., were employed in the culinary department and the Lawrence Cornet band furnished the music. "No one, probably, in Kansas," wrote the Lawrence Republican, "has done more for the prosperity and permanent good of the Territory, as well as the town of Lawrence than has Col. Eldridge, and we hope and expect that this will be the affair of the season."  One would be interested in knowing the result of so much preparation, how many were present, how much money was realized, etc., but the author was unable to find any account of the ball after it took place.
About three weeks later, on Friday evening, February 19, the Good Templars held a festival at the hotel. An invitation was extended to all members in the territory and to all friends of temperance. Tickets to this gathering were three dollars. The Lawrence Cornet band was again pressed into service to furnish music for the dancing. The Reverend Mr. Lovejoy and the Reverend Mr. Brant gave addresses, and at eight o'clock a supper was served. 
Although the Lawrence Republican announced on May 6 that the three lower stories of the Eldridge Hotel would be completed before the 21st of the month, it was not until December 16 that the building was furnished and opened to guests. Besides being a story higher than the Free-State Hotel, the Eldridge House was longer and wider, extending a hundred feet along the east front and one hundred and seventeen feet back. The cost was estimated at $80,000. The Lawrence Republican gave the following description:
It is a four story building, fronting on two streets. The first story is occupied with stores, a billiard room and a spacious apartment devoted to culinary matters. It contains one hundred rooms and can comfortably and without excessive crowding, accommodate both in the dining hall and sleeping rooms two hundred guests. The second story is occupied with a general sitting room, register's office and ample parlors, ladies and gentlemen's, richly furnished with sofas, mirrors, elegant carpeting, &c. There are several parlors with bed-rooms attached and all elegantly furnished. Much of the carpeting is Brussels and the remainder the best quality of "three- ply." Almost all the rooms are furnished with stoves.
Everything about the house is new and in the best order. The house itself is built in the most substantial manner, and neither money nor time have been spared to make it what it really is, a "first class Hotel."
In case of fire, from which the building is admirably guarded, there are three ways of escape from the Second and third floors and two from the fourth, besides scuttle holes by which Mayor Babcock's and Steams' buildings can be reached.
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The energy and enterprise which have carried this great undertaking to a successful issue in times of such universal scarcity and pressure, cannot be too highly commended. By such men and such means does Kansas become the most thrifty and prosperous of communities. . . 
The Eldridge House, with its four stories towering above the other buildings like a modern skyscraper, added much to the appearance of the town. The Lawrence people were proud of it. One visitor said that he could see it "eight or ten miles from the place." "It gave a magnificent appearance at that distance," he added, "that would please the beholder."  Governor Medary, after making a survey of the building, wrote to his wife in Columbus, Ohio, that he could procure a better room and fixtures in Lawrence than in that city."  And C. K. Holliday wrote: "The Eldridge House is fully open-and is very splendid, and elegantly furnished. It is as good a house as any in Cleveland and as large as all the Hotels in Meadville put together."  Horace Greeley, visiting Lawrence in the spring of 1859, likewise spoke of the "magnificent hotel" which he feared was "far better . . . than its patronage will justify."  It was considered the finest hotel west of St. Louis.
On New Year's eve the Eldridges gave a grand opening ball. It was said to have been one of the "gayest assemblies" ever held in Lawrence. One hundred couples attended, and the Lawrence Cornet band was again on hand to provide music. The tables were "gorgeously furnished" and were supplied with "all the delicacies which could be found in the most extensive saloons of the eastern cities." It was also a well dressed group. Colonel Holliday informed his wife that there was much fine dressing now and that he was obliged to buy a new frock coat and the "finest military overcoat you ever saw."  The editor of the Herald of Freedom counted forty-eight couples on the floor at one time with plenty of room for all. He thought it a "brilliant contrast" to a party given four years previously by a Mr. Litchfield at his "mud cabin boarding house," where for want of room to dance the guests spent the evening in social conversation. 
The territorial legislature met at Lecompton in January, 1859, and adjourned to Lawrence to hold its session. Governor Medary and
CALDWELL: THE ELDRIDGE HOUSE 363
a large number of the councilmen and members of the house were guests of the Eldridge House. To honor the governor, a dinner was given Saturday evening, February 5. It was given especially to express appreciation for his "dignity, firmness, and impartiality" in discharging his official duties. A large crowd of men and women representing every shade of Kansas politics was in attendance. An excellent dinner was served and afterwards numerous toasts were given. The first toast to Governor Medary was responded to at some length. Among the ten other toasts offered was one to Kansas territory, "the Eden and Ophir of the `far West'." Another was to the women of Kansas, "without them our Eden would be a desert, our Ophir valueless." At a late hour the program was concluded and the guests departed. One editor thought that the occasion inaugurated a new era in Kansas, an "era of union and harmony between the Executive and the people. . . ." 
The Eldridge House became the center of the town's social activities. Balls, banquets, weddings, political meetings and gatherings of all kinds were held there. Many noted guests were also entertained. Mention has been made of Horace Greeley's visit in May, 1859. From the steps of the Eldridge House he addressed a large gathering. On September 26, 1860, William H. Seward, the senator from New York, and his party visited Lawrence and were the hotel's guests. In the party were other distinguished persons including General Nye, Rufus King of the Milwaukee Sentinel, Charles Francis Adams, Jr., and a Mr. Hays of the New York Herald. In the afternoon Seward spoke to a large crowd in front of the hotel. 
Four years after the Eldridge House was opened it too was destroyed. Quantrill and his guerrilla band entered Lawrence on August 21, 1863, reduced the town practically to ruins and murdered a great number of its citizens. The Eldridge House suffered great losses. Sixty or more guests, a number of them Eastern men who had come out to look over the country with a view to making investments, and other families boarding permanently, lost their personal belongings and household goods. On the first floor were five stores and a law office, and the damage to these alone was said to have been $60,000. The loss to the whole building was perhaps $150,000. But the occupants were spared their lives, a thing difficult to understand considering the treatment given other hotels. For instance, after the Johnson House, the next largest hotel, surrendered, its male occupants were taken out and shot.
364 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
The Lawrence people, almost paralyzed by the blow, silently set about burying their dead and caring for the wounded and homeless. What to do they did not know. Some thought it futile to rebuild, that the rebels would again destroy the town. But finally courage and determination overcame their fears, and in a short time the work of rebuilding was going on everywhere.
Almost the first thought in the minds of prominent citizens after the raid was the rebuilding of the Eldridge House. Ten days after the destruction of the town the following appeal was made to S. W. Eldridge:
Ruins of Lawrence
September 1, 1863
To Col. S. W. Eldridge
The Free State Hotel is again in ruins by the hands of Proslavery fiends. We, your neighbors & friends appeal to you not to be discouraged but arouse yourself to action & rebuild the noble structure as near as possible as it was. We will aid you to the utmost of our ability & firmly believe the friends of freedom throughout the land will aid you-We respectfully urge you to visit those friends throughout the States & give them the opportunity of contributing- We know they will aid in the erection of such a monument to Freedom
|George W. Deitzler||Robert Morrow|
|C. Robinson||L. Guild|
|C. W. Babcock||Simpson Brothers|
|Lyman Allen||H. P. Grovenor|
|O. Wilmarth||Wesley H. Duncan|
|S. K. Huson||James Blood|
|R. W. Ludington||W. E. Sutliff & Co.|
|Josiah Miller||Ridenour & Baker|
|Edward D. Thompson|
On the back, the petition was endorsed by the Kansas delegation in congress, J. H. Lane, S. C. Pomeroy and A. C. Wilder, by Lt. Gov. T. A. Osborn, and by several generals in the army including James G. Blunt. 
But Colonel Eldridge had suffered such losses that he was unable to rebuild without aid. Early in May, a suggestion was made that the city give ten thousand dollars and that citizens subscribe toward the enterprise. Eldridge expressed his opinion that ten thousand dollars from the city would be sufficient. On June 8 a meeting was held on the Eldridge House site to consider plans for rebuilding. At this meeting a committee was appointed to visit the city council and ask them to call an election for submitting the question of the city's
CALDWELL: THE ELDRIDGE HOUSE 365
contributing ten thousand dollars toward the erection of a hotel "equal to the old Eldridge House." 
To encourage the city officials a petition signed by 115 prominent citizens was presented to the council. The petition stressed the importance of erecting a first class hotel immediately, the necessity of municipal aid, and expressed confidence in the ability of S. W. Eldridge. It stated the willingness of the signers to support the city in voting ten thousand dollars in bonds to Eldridge, and pledged their votes and influence to secure such action. Among the signers were Wilson Shannon, James H. Lane, Sidney Clarke, P. D. Ridenour, S. N. Simpson, George Deitzler, and Charles Robinson. 
Frequent articles in the newspapers kept the matter before the public. A writer to the Kansas Tribune proposed incorporating a joint stock company. He believed that a thousand shares at one hundred dollars each would be readily taken, and through the rent. of stores in the building and the increased value of property the stock would pay good dividends.  On February 25, the editor of the Tribune urged the city to vote bonds, arguing that the town was prospering and that a good hotel would bring emigrants and would be the first inducement to capitalists. 
A bond election to vote $15,000 was finally called for March 3. The question carried by a vote of 162 to 47. About two weeks later the mayor advertised for sealed proposals. The bids were to contain the size of the building, its location, approximate cost and the material to be used. The bids were opened on April 5, by the city council and the contract was awarded to Colonel Eldridge. The building was to be 100 by 117 feet and three stories high.  In addition to the fifteen thousand dollars in bonds, a number of citizens gave donations. According to the editor of the Tribune one individual subscribed one thousand dollars and two others five hundred dollars each. 
Eldridge began immediately with a large force of hands to remove the ruins and clean the brick worth saving. On May 3 the Tribune reported that the masons would soon commence laying the walls. A little more than three weeks later, on May 27, the cornerstone was
366 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
laid with appropriate ceremonies. The Reverend E. Nute, a pioneer minister, gave the address. The inscription on the stone read:
Site of Free State Hotel Burned by Sheriff Jones May 21, 1856
Eldridge House Burned by Quantrill August 21, 1863
The work continued through the summer, although delayed at times by inability to get brick and lumber. By September 20, the building was up to the third story. The editor of the Tribune thought that it looked too "squatty" and suggested that aid be given to help Eldridge add another story. But his appeal received no response, since three stories fulfilled the contract. In November the roof was put on and the next month the first floor was completed and ready for occupation. This floor contained five store rooms which were soon rented. The Merchant Tailoring establishment moved in in December, and early in January H. H. Ludington opened a saloon in one of the rooms. A Bazaar store occupied another room, Drake & Crew's bookstore another, and B. W. Woodward moved the prescription department of his drug store into the basement. 
Work on the rest of the building began to lag. This delay brought forth a remonstrance from a citizen taxpayer who inquired about the prospects of the building being completed. Although the stores were finished he thought that the city could hardly afford to give a bonus of $3,000 each for five store rooms. Nor did he think that the city could afford to give $15,000 for the erection of a hotel to be completed when the rent from the stores furnished the money. He declared that all that had been done in the last three months could have been accomplished in three days. "We want the hotel now," he asserted, "and it is due to the city that it be completed at the earliest possible time. . . ." 
On May 21, 1866, Eldridge sold the hotel to George W. Deitzler. The purchase price was nearly $50,000, and the name, Eldridge House, was retained. Deitzler began pushing the work with the utmost energy, engaging all the workmen who could be employed.  Early in June the firm of Johnson & Wiggins completed the plastering,  and in July Deitzler leased the building to E. A. Smith and
CALDWELL: THE ELDRIDGE HOUSE 367
E. C. Stevens. Stevens was experienced in the work, having been connected with the Planter's Hotel in Leavenworth for a number of years.  The hotel was opened for the reception of guests on September 27, and the next evening the proprietors celebrated by giving a ball at Frazer's hall. The public was invited and many persons from Leavenworth and the surrounding towns attended. The hall was crowded and according to the Tribune the ball was a "grand success." 
The building was three stories high with a frontage of one hundred feet on Massachusetts street and one hundred and seventeen feet on Winthrop. The first floor was used principally for stores with the hotel office and the main entrance on Massachusetts street and the kitchen in the rear. The sixty-four rooms in the upper stories included sleeping rooms and parlors. In addition to these were linen closets and rooms for domestics. The dining room on the second floor was 32 by 70 feet 92 It was well arranged and contained such modern conveniences as a "Patent Carving Table" fifteen feet long which was heated the entire length with hot water. The rooms were large, airy and well lighted, with high ceilings, and furnished in the "tastiest and most comfortable style. . . ."  All the modern improvements were included in the equipment of the building. On each floor was a wide hall and connected with the ground floor was a billiard saloon 40 by 70 feet. In 1868 the billiard hall was redecorated and furnished in a style "not outdone by any similar establishment in the country." 
In January, 1876, the Eldridge House again changed hands, being purchased by H. H. Ludington, who changed its name to the Ludington House.  Four years later J. R. Pershall of Junction City bought it.  The former name was restored, and with the exception of the four years during which it was owned by Ludington it has been known as the Eldridge House since the erection of the second building. The Eldridge House did not always maintain its high standards. At one time at least it was in a dilapidated condition. In 1883 a writer to the Tribune described it as an old barn with no paint, no shutters at the windows, not a bath in the whole house, and the
368 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
plastering falling off in many of the rooms. He considered it a "lamentable fact" that Lawrence could not "boast of one building in which to run a strictly first-class hotel." However, he exonerated the proprietor, J. R. Pershall, from all blame.  In September of that year Bernard Murry became manager. Murry had been in charge of the McClure House in Canon City, Colo., a place noted for the abundance and variety of its food and the "excellence of its cuisine." He immediately set about to repair and refurnish the building. Under his capable management the house was restored to its former prestige and Lawrence no longer had reason to be ashamed of its big hotel. 
The property has changed hands many times since 1865. On December 5, 1865, it was deeded to the city and soon after turned over to the county for taxes. The next year it was purchased by George Deitzler from Shalor Eldridge. Other owners have been H. H. Ludington, J. R. Pershall, Mrs. A. M. Deitzler and Edward Maloy. In 1899 Maloy sold the building and contents to E. G. Conn. After passing through the hands of several members of the Conn family, it was sold to Anna L. Hutson in November, 1907. Mrs. Hutson deeded it to her two sons, George E. and William G., in 1910, and two years later William G. Hutson, the present owner, became sole possessor. 
For fifty-nine years after its rebuilding in 1866 the Eldridge House continued to operate without major alterations. It became widely known-in one instance in not too complimentary a way. In the fall of 1914, Julian Street, an American author, stopped at Lawrence on a visit to Kansas and the West. In an article in Collier's he facetiously described his brief visit to the Eldridge House as follows:
. . . I retired to the Eldridge House dining room and ordered the fifty-cent luncheon. If it was the worst meal I had on my entire trip, it at least fulfilled an expectation, for I had heard that meals in Western hotels were likely to be poor. It is only just to add, however, that a number of sturdy men who were seated about the room ate more heartily and vastly than any other people I have seen, excepting German tourists on a Rhine steamer. I envy Kansans their digestions. For my own part, I was less interested in my meal than in the waitresses. . . . There is, I trust, nothing improper in making mention of the striking display of jewelry worn by the waitresses at the Eldridge House. All wore diamonds in their hair, and not one wore less than fifty thousand dollars' worth. These diamonds were set in large hairpins,
CALDWELL: THE ELDRIDGE HOUSE 369
and the show of gems surpassed any I have ever seen by daylight. Luncheon at the Eldridge suggests, in this respect, a first night at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York, and if it is like that at luncheon what must it be at dinner? Do they wear tiaras and diamond stomachers? I regret that I am unable to say, for, immediately after luncheon, I kept an appointment, previously made, with the driver of the auto hack. . . 
According to the Kansas City Star Hutson was not at all indignant at Street's remarks, but was gratified at the notice his establishment had received. He accordingly presented the Eastern writer with a season meal ticket with the following message:
The Eldridge House, fortunate enough to come under your notice, has achieved national prominence as a result of your recent visit to Lawrence and the article you have written for Collier's about your brief stay here.
I hardly dare to think about the sum that would have to be spent to reach this result by any other means than the one you have employed without expectation or hope of reward.
Not in any way as a measure of the service you have rendered, but as an earnest of my appreciation, I beg to extend to you the privileges of the Eldridge House dining room for the season of 1915.
Trusting that you may be able to make frequent use of the enclosed pass, I remain, Yours very truly,
W. G. Hutson 
The second Eldridge House was one of the most modern of its day, but a later era of hotel building, bringing new inventions and improvements, antiquated the establishment. Not long after William G. Hutson became owner in 1912, the World War, with its attendant high prices, shattered whatever dreams or plans he may have had for a new building. The unsettled financial conditions after the war also precluded any such venture by one person. Meanwhile Lawrence was badly in need of a modern hotel. In 1925 an appeal was made to the Lawrence people to help in the enterprise, and through a popular campaign, initiated by the Lawrence Chamber of Commerce, fifty thousand dollars was raised by subscription.  Preliminary arrangements having been completed, work began on the new building May 18, 1925. The plan was to rebuild in sections, leaving one part standing to continue hotel accommodations. On the above date workmen began to tear down the north half.  Day and night shifts speeded the work in an endeavor to complete the building in time for the return of the old K. U. "Grads" for the Missouri-Kansas football game that fall. 
370 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
On August 21, the sixty-second anniversary of the Quantrill raid, the ceremony for the laying of the cornerstone took place. The exercises were held in front of the building with the workmen's scaffold for a platform. A crowd of people stood in Massachusetts street blocking the traffic. Many of the old settlers who had witnessed the sacking and burning of the first Eldridge House were there. The daughter of Colonel Eldridge came from California. Mrs. Anna Lane Johnson, Jim Lane's daughter, was also present. The principal address was given by W. E. Connelley, secretary of the Kansas Historical Society. Fred Trigg of the Kansas City Star, Mayor Frank M. Holliday and R. C. Rankin also spoke. 
The work continued, but the goal for the completion of the building was not realized. It was not until the beginning of April, 1926, that the first unit was finished. Its formal opening took place on the afternoon of April 8, when the entire hotel was thrown open to visitors. According to the editor of the Journal-World, the "procession of callers literally ran into the thousands and the hotel lobbies were crowded from 2:30 o'clock in the afternoon until nearly midnight. 
After the first unit was finished, work began on the south half. The celebration for the completion of this addition occurred January 1, 1929, with an open house. A large crowd filled the lobby, coffee shop, grill room and ball room. Music for dancing was furnished by Kansas City orchestras. In addition to the coffee shop and dining room, the new part contained about fifty guest rooms on the upper floors. The dining room was beautifully finished in ivory and gold, the coffee shop in jade and green and the grill room with tinted bricks. Pennants of the "Big Six" athletic teams decorated the inlaid panels on the tile floor. 
The Eldridge House continues to carry on. Lawrence would not be Lawrence without it. It originated with the town, has grown with it, and is embedded deeply in its traditions.
1. "Emigrant Aid Papers," "Mist.," MSS. division, Kansas Historical Society.
2. "Trustees' Records," v. 1, p. 14, "EAP."
3. Richard Cordley, A History of Lawrence, Kansas. . . . (E. F. Caldwell, Lawrence Journal Press, Lawrence, 1895), p. 13.
4. "Trustees' Records." v. 1, p. 47, November 22, 1854.
5. Ibid., p. 44.
6. Ibid., p. 55.
7. Thomas Webb to Pomeroy, October 7, 1856; Webb to Branscomb, October 13, 1856, in "letter Press Book," pp. 378, 398, "EAP."
8. The Kansas Herald of Freedom, Lawrence, January 6, 1855.
10. Ibid., February 17, 1855
11. Ibid., May 12, 1855.
12. Kansas Free State, Lawrence, May 21; Herald of Freedom, June 16, 1855. 13. Kansas Free State, July 9, 1855.
14. "Trustees' Records," v. 1, p. 165, July 21, 1855.
15. Robinson to Webb, July 24, 1855, "EAP" correspondence.
16. Pomeroy to - -, St. Louis, August 6, 1855, in ibid.
17. Webb to Charles Branscomb, August 20, 1855, "EAP."
18. Herald of Freedom, October 6, 1855.
19. Ibid., September 1, 1855.
20. This company became the famous Stubbs.
21. Kansas Free State, November 19, 1855.
22. Mrs. Sara T. D. Robinson, Kansas, Its Interior and Exterior Life (Boston, 1856), 97.
23. Kansas Free State, November 19, 1855.
24. Mrs. Robinson, op. cit., p. 97.
25. Herald of Freedom, November 17, 1855.
26. Ibid., December 15, 1855; Cordley, op. cit., p. 57.
27. Mrs. Robinson, op. cit., p. 146.
28. Ibid., p. 153.
29. Ibid., p. 155; A. T. Andreas, History of the State of Kansas (Chicago, 1883), p. 120.
30. Cordley, op. cit., p. 77; Mrs. Robinson, op. cit., pp. 161-163; Herald of Freedom, December 22, 1855.
31. Ibid. (Dated on masthead December 29.)
32. G. Douglas Brewerton, The War in Kansas (New York, Derby and Jackson, 1856), pp. 265-267.
33. "Trustees' Records," v. 1, p. 223, December 29, 1855.
34. Herald of Freedom, January 9, 1856.
35. Ibid., March 29, 1856.
36. Ibid., April 12, 1856.
38. Mrs. Robinson, op, cit., pp. 196, 197.
39. Cordley, op. cit., p. 91.
40. Kansas City (Mo.) Times, "A Hotel With a History," August 22, 1925.
41. "Trustees' Records," v. 2, p. 130, June 14, 1856.
42. Ibid., v. 2, pp. 133, 134, June 21, 1856; Webb to Pomeroy, June 21, 1856, in "Letter Press Book."
43. "Trustees' Records," v. 2, p. 135, June 27, 1856.
44. "Letter Press Book," pp. 77-81.
45. Webb to Simpson, June 27, 1856, ibid., p. 72, "EAP."
46. Webb to G. W. Hunt, June 27, 1856, ibid., p. 70.
47. Webb to Geo. A. Russell, June 30, 1856; to the Rev. William C. Clark, July 29, 1856, ibid., pp. 83, 166.
48. "Misc. Papers," "EAP."
49. "Accounts," ..EAP."
50. "Trustees' Records," v. 2, p. 150, July 25, 1856.
51. Webb to Branscomb, August 6, 1856, "Letter Press Book," p. 204.
52. Higginson to Branscomb, October 1, 1856, ibid., p. 356.
53. Webb to Robinson, October 7, 1856, ibid., p. 375.
54. "Contracts," ..EAP."
55. "Trustees' Records," v. 2, p. 188, November 7, 1856.
56. Ibid., pp. 195, 196, November 21, 1856.
57. Higginson to Branscomb, November 22, 1856, "Letter Press Book," pp. 465-467.
58. "Trustees' Records," v. 2, pp. 203, 204, 211, 214.
59. Webb to Branscomb, December 31, 1856, "Letter Press Book," pp. 556-560.
60. Webb to Branscomb, January 26, 1857, ibid., p. 605.
61. "Trustees' Records," v. 3, p. 29.
62. Ibid., v. 3, pp. 34-37, February 7, 1857.
63. Ibid., v. 3, p. 126, May 15, 1857.
64. Ibid., v. 3, p. 48, February 13, 1857.
65. C. J. Higginson and L. B. Russell to Branscomb, February 23, 1857, "EAP" correspondence.
66. "Journal," p. 29, "EAP."
67. Herald of Freedom, December 12, 1857; Lawrence Republican, December 17.
68. Ibid., January 21, 1858.
69. Ibid., February 4, 1858; Herald of Freedom, Lawrence, February 6.
70. Lawrence Republican, December 23, 1858.
71. Herald of Freedom, February 13, 1858.
72. Lawrence Republican, December 23, 1858.
73. Holliday to his wife, January 30, 1859, "Holliday Collection," Mss. division, Kansas Historical Society.
74. Horace Greeley, An Overland Journey, From New York to San Francisco (New York, C. M. Saxton, Barker & Co., 1860), p. 43.
75. Holliday to his wife, January 30, in "Holliday Collection."
76. Herald of Freedom, January 8, 1859.
77. Ibid., February 12; Lawrence Republican, January 20, February 10, 1859.
78. Ibid., September 27, 1860.
79. MSS. division.
80. Kansas Weekly Tribune, Lawrence, June 9, 1864.
81. Original manuscript in MSS. division.
82. Kansas Daily Tribune, Lawrence, January 28, 1865.
88. Ibid., February 25, 1865.
84. Ibid., April 7, 1865.
85. Ibid., April 11, 1865.
86. Ibid., December 24, 1865; January 23, 28, February 10, March 20, 1866.
87. Ibid., March 15, 1866.
88. Ibid., May 22, 25, 1866.
89. Ibid., June 3, 1866.
90. Ibid., July 13, 1866.
91. Ibid., September 27, 29, 1866.
92. Ibid., May 25, 1866.
93. Ibid., September 26, 1866.
94. Kansas Weekly Tribune, May 14, 1868.
95. Ibid., January 6, 1876.
96. The Western Home Journal, Lawrence, September 9, 1880.
97. Kansas Weekly Tribune, April 20, 1883.
98. Lawrence Daily Journal, September 9, 1883.
99. Lawrence Journal-World, August 22, 1925.
100. "Kansas-where All signs Fail," in Collier's, October 24, 1914, p. 20.
101. Kansas City (Mo.) Star, October 25, 1914.
102. Lawrence Daily Journal-World, October 10, 1929.
103. Ibid., August 21, 1925; Kansas City (Mo.) Star, June 28, 1925.
104. Ibid., July 26, 1925.
106. Lawrence Daily Journal-World, August 22, 1925; Kansas City (Mo.) Times, August 22, 1925.
106. Lawrence Daily Journal-World, April 9, 1926.
107. Ibid., January 2, 1929; Topeka Daily Capital, September 25, 1928.