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Kansas Historical Quarterly - Touring Kansas and Colorado in 1871, 2

The Journal of George C. Anderson - Concluded

Winter 1956 (Vol. 22, No. 1), pages 358 to 384;
Transcribed by Barbara Hutchins and Lynn Nelson;
HTML by Barbara Hutchins and Susan Stafford;
digitized with permission of the Kansas Historical Society.
NOTE: The numbers in brackets refer to endnotes for this text.

AT 8:30 Denver time, or 9:55 Cincinnati time, [27] we leave for Cheyenne Wyoming Ter. via the D[enver] P[acific] R. R. At Hughes Station we were introduced by Col. Fisher to B. F. Johnston ag't of a Chicago land shark Co. who gave us a very pressing invitation to stop with him on our way back, that he might show us over the lands belonging to their Co. We very politely decline the invitation, as we were not bait for that kind of fish. We pass through Evans where a Chicago Colony [28] have located, their irrigating ditches and canals were rather an odd sight to us. This colony had not prospered as well as they might have done, owing to their reckless manner of doing business, and want of funds. Fifty one miles north of Denver we pass Greeley. Here a Colony from the New England States had located, under the auspices of Horace Greeley [29] and judging from the appearance of the land he selected, his knowledge of land was in keeping with "what I know about farming." [30] All along the road passengers amuse themselves shooting at antelope and Prairie dogs.

Ninety six miles from Denver, we reached the summit between Denver and Cheyenne, six thousand four hundred and fifteen feet above the sea level. Here we are among the foot hills of the mountains. The scenery is wild and barren. West of us, running from north to South as far as the eye can reach, a range of snow covered mountain tops pierce the clouds. From many places along the whole range where destructive fires were consuming whole pine forests, could be seen immense columns of smoke arising, sometimes obscuring the mountain scenery beyond. At times heavy clouds went

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rolling along through the valleys, from which we could see the rain falling in torrents, while Heaven's artillery belched forth terrific flashes of lightning, the report of which did not reach us for many seconds afterwards.

[ARRIVE AT CHEYENNE, WYO. TER., JUNE 7]

We arrive at Cheyenne at 12:45. This place is situated on the U.P.R.R. 516 miles west from Omaha, and 516 miles east from Salt Lake, and has a population of from twelve to fifteen hundred, and is kept alive by the immense travel through from the Atlantic and Pacific States, and the trade from Fort Russell situated three miles northwest, where are stationed eleven companies of infantry and cavalry troops, to guard against indian depredations. There appeared quite a cavalcade of vehicles of various kinds, to carry the soldiers and officers, wives and sweet-hearts to and from the train. The train going west consisted of nine crowded coaches drawn by two powerful engines. The one going East consisted of eight coaches equally crowded.

[GREELEY AND ITS IMPROVEMENTS]

After getting all of the information in regard to Wyoming and other Territories to the northwest; we conclude to go no further in that direction, but retrace our steps to the southward, and leave for Greeley in the afternoon, where we arrive in the evening, and stop at the Colorado House. After supper, we visit some of the most important points in the Colony. Having settled here the year previous, they are certainly entitled to great credit for what they have already accomplished. They have erected some two hundred and fifty houses, and have a population of about fifteen hundred. They have constructed two main ditches for irrigation. One about thirty miles in length. The other about ten miles.

A Park is situated in the center of the town plat, in which had been transplanted at great expense, maple, cottonwood, silver-poplar and many varieties of evergreen trees. Two or three miniature lakes had just been filled from the irrigating ditches. Gardens are scattered over the whole plat, but they do not look well, being almost parched, excepting in the immediate neighborhood of the ditches, where the ground was kept continually moist. Trees, wheat and garden vegetables were dying for want of water. The soil is a mixture of clay, sand and gravel, and is capable of absorbing a very large amount of water. They think if the land could be thoroughly irrigated once, that there woud be no trouble to raise crops in the

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future. We saw wheat three or four inches high planted in hills one and two feet apart, and cultivated with the hoe.

Outside of the cultivated lands, the whole country is covered with cacti of every kind and hue, intermingled with small patches of buffalo grass, and would require sheet iron armor on the noses of stock to protect them while grazing. As near as we could learn from them, each member of the Colony paid into the Colonial treasury an equal amount which entitled them to a choice of town lots or land, equal to that amount. One or two lots in town being equal in value to ten, twenty, forty or eighty acres of land, according to its distance from the town. Many persons to improve their land or lots, and live until a crop can be raised, had mortgaged their property, and from the present prospect would lose all they had, unless lenity was shown them, which could hardly be expected from those monied men with whom we met. The consequence was every one was carrying a stiff upper lip, asking from two hundred and fifty to three thousand dollars for lots, and from ten to twenty five dollars per acre for their cactus patches.

The air is very warm through the day and cold at night. Two weeks before we were there a whirlwind came up from the southeast ricochetting through one corner of the town, demolished three or four houses. The air was hot, the sky was clear, and not a drop of rain had fallen for some time, there was nothing to betoken a storm of any kind. Such storms as these are of frequent occurrence. If these colonists do not succeed here, no others can. Being of steady habits, they allow no saloons for selling liquors, no billiard tables or gambling of any kind in the colony. They have lyceums, public readings and scientific lectures. The colony bell is rang at seven, twelve, one and six oclock regularly during the day. There is one Baptist church, one Free church, and the Tabernacle, which is used by all other denominations, one public hall called Raney Hall. The Methodists are making efforts to erect a Church as soon as possible. Brick is being made for the erection of a school-house to cost some thirty thousand dollars. A grist mill was then being built and a woolen factory was contemplated. Taken altogether the colonists have succeeded beyond all expectations. We fear they will too soon reach the bottom of their purses, as the outlay far exceeds the income.

Water for irrigation is taken from the Cache la Poudre. A canal is contemplated to be taken from the same river fifty miles above, constructed large enough for navigation, as well as irrigation of a

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large body of country between Greeley and the mountains. We talk with none of the colonists outside of the ring but who are sorely disappointed, and acknowledged that they had been swindled in joining the colony. Maj. Bostwick, in a conversation with the Editor of the Greeley Tribune of that place, [31] spoke rather severely of their patron, Horace Greeley, whereupon he took umbrage, leaving us abruptly and in a short time had some of the officials of the town following us as though they were boiling for a melee, and luckily for them and us, it was avoided. During the forenoon of the 8" we went in search of agates, found many, but not very valuable.

[RETURN TO DENVER, JUNE 9]

At 4:30 P.M. we leave for Denver, where we arrive safely, and stopping at the Carr House, retire early, to rest our weary bones.

On the morning of the 9" we met Col. J. C. Fry formerly of Sidney, O. while passing down one of the crowded thoroughfares, who immediately took us in charge, and from this time during our stay in Colorado we had a faithful guide. He prevailed on us to make our headquarters at the Tremont House one of the best in the City.

In the afternoon we found Robt Wilson formerly of Sidney, O. who has been here several years, and has held several offices of trust; were introduced to Mr. Byers, Editor of the Rocky Mountain News [32], and ag't for the Gen'l Land Co. who gave us many important facts in regard to lands, and the prospects of colonizing in Colorado. We visited ex Governor Evans, [33] who took great pains to inform us in matters relating to the statistics of the Territory, it's agriculture and mineral products; requesting us to call on him whenever we wanted any facts in regard to the country. We were visited by the Ag't of the Colorado Co. of Chicago [34], who extended us an invitation to visit them before we left Colorado. He would furnish us passes, and accompany us into the mountains, through the mining districts. We agreed to accept the invitation if we found time, after getting through with our business.

A delegation of ministers, returning from California, stopped here today. In the evening they held a meeting in the open air. They

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were addressed by Mr. Moody of Chicago, and after singing two or three old familiar hymns, the ministers start up street to the Presbyterian Church followed by an immense crowd of people singing that soul cheering Sunday School hymn "We are coming, we are coming, we are coming, blessed Savior"   Arriving at the Church, a sermon was preached by a celebrated Divine of New York City. This indeed was a very unusual sight to the Citizens of Denver, many of whom had not heard a sermon or seen a congregation of Christians since leaving the states.

This great congregation was made up of mechanics & day laborers returning from their days work, with their dinner buckets on their arms, Chinese with their long black cues twisted up like a lady's chignon under their hats; and with a curious stare from their oblique almond shaped eyes, were asking each other "What ailee Mellican man." Ute indians wrapped in their indispensable red blankets, and buckskin leggins, with brass trinkets in their ears and nose and their faces painted in hideous stripes, came up to hear of the Great Spirit of the Pale Faces. The devotees of Bacchus flocked from the innumerable drinking saloons to hear the old, old, story taught them by a loved and loving mother, in their boyhood and at the recolection of which they stand spell-bound. Mexican teamsters, and Greasers, in their dirt and rags, with long black uncombed hair and beard, dark complexion and hard scowling visage, and a brace of navy revolvers suspended from a belt well filled with cartridges. Texan herdsmen, harder looking if any odds, than their Mexican friends in pants and vest of calf skin dressed with the hair on, their feet were encased in heavy cavalry boots, on each of which was buckled an immense spur with tiny tingling bells dangling from them. They were, also, armed with Navy revolvers and large bowie-knives. Gamblers came from the many gambling Hells which abound in the City; forgetting for the time the excitement over Faro tables, and billiards. Taken altogether it was the most conglomerate audience that could well be imagined.

[VISIT THE FARM OF PETER MAGNES, JUNE 10]

We are waited upon by Mr. Cook, Agent for the sale of Capt. [Wm.] Craigs lands in southern Colorado, also, by Mr. Mathews Agent of the National Land Co., of Colorado. On the morning of the 10" we accept an invitation from Mr. Mathews and visit the ranch of Peter Magnus, [35] in company with himself and Col. Fry. Proceed-

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ing southward from Denver we pass many well cultivated farms in the Platte valley, and seven miles from Denver we reached the farm of Mr. Magnus situated on the east bank of the Platte river. Mr. Magnus took us over his farm, giving us a detailed account of irrigation; he had several men irrigating the land at the time. Thus giving us a practical, as well as theoretical demonstration of the way it was done. He gave us his method for raising the different crops on his farm, and took us over the fields to see them growing.

After nearly running us down he took us to his barn and showed us his grain and hay; giving us a full report on the average per acre. Red Siberian wheat averaged last year fifty seven bushels per. acre; sixty pound, per. bushel; from one gallon Arondga wheat sown, he gathered twenty one bu; at the rate of ninety three bu, per. acre. From this variety he had repeatedly tried to have flour made, but without success; it was a very hard flinty grain. English Excelsior oats averaged fifty eight bu. per acre; 51 lbs. per bu. Prussian Oats fifty three bu. per acre; Black Swedish oats, eighty three and one half bu. per acre; from two bu. sown. He had large fields of peas, cabbage and beets. His beet crop last year averaged one hundred and fifty tons per. acre, cabbage thirty seven tons per. acre, which he sold at two cents per. pound. One pumpkin weighed sixty two pounds, one squash, one hundred and four pounds. He sowed last year sixty pounds of barley, from which he gathered thirty three hundred pounds.

His house is octagonal in shape and built of gravel and lime. Taking us into the house, he set before us liquors and cigars, and requested us to enjoy ourselves, if our enjoyment ran in that channel. He showed us three large silver medals he had received from the Colorado Agricultural society in 1870. One for the best lot of sugar beets. One for the best display of small grain, and one for the best and greatest variety of farm products.

Mr. Magnus is a Swede    he left Wisconsin with his family in 1859 for Pikes Peak; he says he found mining played out, or at best paying very poorly, provisions were scarce, and vegetables entirely out of the market. He therefore concluded to commence raising vegetables for the miners; which he did with great success. The second year he entered 615 acres of land. He showed us the first plow and harrow used in the Territory, which were great curiosities. They were made by him in 1859. The plow had a rude beam about twelve feet long, morticed into an upright stick of timber, on the lower end of which was nailed an old pointed shovel, through the

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upper end an inch hole was bored, through which was driven a stick about two feet long, to answer as handles with which to guide the plow. The harrow was formed of pieces of wood about fifteen inches long, in which were driven wooden teeth, these were pinned together in squares forming a net work five or six feet square; making a harrow which he said he preferred to the new fangled harrows of today. The Denver and Rio Grande R. R. (36 inch gauge) passes through his farm.

[LEAVE DENVER FOR PUEBLO, JUNE 11]

After a very pleasant visit we return to Denver and visit several land Ag'ts and after an earnest solicitation from Mr. Cook, we agree to visit Capt. Craig's farm as he had made especial arrangements for us to do so. And accordingly on the morning of the 11" accompanied by Col Fry and Chas. Cook we leave by coach for Pueblo, 120 miles south. The road was very dusty and from the immense travel the dust was kept flying. At times we could hardly get our breath and could scarcely discern a passing train of wagons, we were continually passing trains of wagons, loaded with lumber hides and wool, and driven by the hardest looking men we ever saw.

We took dinner at Russelville situated at the head of Cherry creek where the first discovery of gold was made in Colorado, and which gave rise to the great Pikes Peak excitement. In the bed of this creek, five dollars per day can easily be panned out in gold at this time, but scarcity of water and danger from the indians, make it a slow as well as dangerous process. Here Cherry Creek had sunk away, and the bed is filled with dry sand. Russelville contains a stable for the coach horses, and a house of three or four rooms, which is used as an eating house, and where we ate as good a meal as we found in all that route from Cheyenne in Wyoming Territory, to Cap't Craigs in Southern Colorado. Passing on we reach the summit of the divide, a spur of the Rocky mountains dividing the head waters of the Platte, and the Arkansas rivers. Here we reach an altitude of seven thousand feet. Passing through large pine forests the scenery is continually changing.

Our progress through the day up the northern slope had been slow but when we commenced the descent of the southern slope we went at a fearful speed, reminding one of Greeleys fearful ride down the Sierra Nevada, when the driver said to him, "never mind Horace we'll get you there in time." Here we witnessed the grandest

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sunset scene that we ever beheld, language would fail to describe it. Reaching the foot of the divide, we enter and pass through Monumental Park, but darkness keeps us from seeing much. Five or six miles further on we pass by the Garden of the Gods and half an hour after we arrive at Colorado City near the foot of Pike's Peak, the highest in this range.

After sweeping, dusting and getting the real estate off of our faces and beards, we proceed to supper; where Mr. Huffman, being unusually fond of trout, and wishing to steal a march on the balance of the passengers; cleared all the dishes of that savory article and had them replenished until he was sufficiently filled to bring up the subject of trout, when to his chagrin the dining room girl informed him that it was white fish. This news brought down the house. Our friend however, attributed his mistake to the peculiar manner of serving up the fish; which by the way was quite a compliment to the cook. The subject of trout afterwards brought pleasant reminiscences. We had been seeing through the day, heavy columns of smoke arising from one of the high mountain peaks, from fire raging among the pines, which as darkness came on, looked more and more terrific; from here we had a good view of it, the flames would roll and leap along the mountain side, and occasionally a meteor-like ball of fire would shoot downwards for a few seconds, then plunge out of sight. The fire was raging high up the mountain side, and nothing being visible but fire, it gave the appearance of a terrible conflagration in the Heavens.

After supper we travel on. Eight men and one lady are crowded inside of the coach, while three men ride outside. The lady was going to Pueblo to join her husband, who was in business there. We passed a sleepless night, being jostled, and bumped around in a lively manner. Arriving at Pueblo on the 12" at 6:30 A. M.; we stop at the Chilcott House, and after dusting our clothes, and after picking the dirt out of our eyes and ears, and rinsing it down our throats with electric fluid, we have a good breakfast. We are visited by Capt Craig, who had been telegraphed of our coming, and had come to meet us. Wine, cream and strawberries were served during the forenoon, by Mr. Cook.

In the afternoon the Capt. sent his carriage -- drawn by four horses -- to the Hotel for us, we were joined by the Cap't in the southern part of the town. Our driver was a Mexican, he made the distance, twenty five miles, in two and one half hours.

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[CAPTAIN CRAIG'S RANCH [36] JUNE 12-13]

Two miles from Hermosillo -- as the Capt has named his ranch -- we halt on an eminence overlooking his tillable lands, which are situated in the valley of the Huerfano river, which can easily be traced by the timber skirting it, and for a distance of five miles, we could see occasionally a cluster of buildings occupied by his farm help. His own residence was hidden by a beautiful grove. Descending to the valley at a break neck speed, we are soon at the end of our journey.

His mansion is built after the old Mexican style, with the exception of a pitched roof. It is one hundred and fifty feet in length by one hundred in width. Through the entire length runs a corridor, on either side of which are large rooms, some of which are furnished in oriental splendor. At the west end a wide porch extends the entire width of the building surrounded by climbing vines, trained so as to form an arched entrance at the front, and an arched window or lookout at the northern end having the appearance of an immense green room. Birds had built their nests among the vines, and were repaying for this privilege in sweet songs.

We were shown our rooms on the upper floor, and after cleaning ourselves as well as we could from our scanty wardrobe descended to the porch, where the Cap't awaited us with a pleasant and invigorating mint Julep. In a few minutes supper was announced; the table was loaded with the most costly viands served in china and silver, and livened with the graces of Miss Carrie Jennings niece of Cap't Craig, a very agreeable and intelligent young lady. Mexican men servents come and go at the bidding, there being but two females about the Hicenda -- Mrs. Craig and Miss Jennings. Mrs. Craig being sick did not make her appearance at the table during our stay. Being tired we turned into bed early, and rested better than we had since leaving home. The beds were filled with down, and were the softest we had ever reclined upon.

On the morning of the 13" the Cap't kindly offered us his men as guides and his horses and vehicles to convey us in any direction we wished over his land, and took great pains to inform us that land in that dry atmosphere would not produce unless well irrigated;

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so we as a committee could not expect to give a good report unless we would irrigate the inner man with some of his iced drinks, at least every two hours; he bid us report ourselves accordingly, and after a copious flow from his silver goblets, we start to the westward up the valley of the Huerfanno on foot, until we reach the deep rocky canyon through which the river comes roaring and foaming for twenty five miles. We climbed up over the rugged and precipitous rocks from one to two hundred feet above the rushing torrent, amusing ourselves by rolling stones over the precipice and seeing them dash into the river below. Mr. Huffman hurt his foot while engaged in this amusement, and went limping back to the house.

About half a mile from the mouth of this Canyon, there was a rude dam of stones thrown across the river; and down through that wall of rock on the north side, the Cap't had blasted a canal, through which to convey water to irrigate four thousand acres of land. His canal and ditches cost him over one hundred thousand dollars. In this canyon abound all kinds of game, grizzly and cinnamon bears; mountain lions; catamounts, wolves; foxes and numerous kinds of poisonous snakes. To the southwest we see the Spanish Peaks looming up like huge cones seventy miles distant. Here we leave the canyon, going north over the upland, thence by a circuitous route to the house; where we found Mr. Huffman batheing his foot in the basin of the fountain and Cap't Craig anxiously awaiting our return; we having disobeyed his orders by staying one hour over time, the irrigation came nevertheless.

We then take a light wagon and two horses, and travel eastward, down the valley, through the irrigated lands until we reach the farm of his neighbor on the east, the only one he had within sixty five miles -- excepting at Pueblo on the north -- and with whom he was not on friendly terms. He had one building in course of erection for a niece who had married but a short time previous, but who was then in the states, this was the best house on his farm excepting his own. The farm had been neglected the last two years, no more being raised than was needed for their own consumption. Five years before, the products of his farm brought him sixty thousand dollars after deducting his heavy expenses.

We did not proceed far to the southward, as that portion of his land beyond the valley containing forty six thousand acres, was fitted only for grazing purposes; returning to the house about two oclock we find dinner awaiting us; were introduced to Mr. Kenyon, and Col. Wodell from Denver, who were endeavoring to lease the farm for

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grazing purposes. They proposed to graze from five to ten thousand head of cattle on it. They were very gentlemanly in their manners and quite good fellows. The grounds around his house -- some ten acres -- were tastefully laid out in walks and drives, miniature lakes, cascades and rivulets, and in front a fountain was continually playing, while the shade trees seemed to invite you to a cool retreat. At the northern extremity of the enclosure, runs Huerfanno skirted on either side by beautiful groves of cottonwood, and spanned by rustic bridges, giving a picturesque and lovely appearance to the scenery; near the south bank was built a large warehouse in which was kept the provisions for his own, and the families of those in his employ.

We were shown into his kitchen and pantry, the first being furnished with all the modern improvements and the latter having the appearance of a wholesale grocery and provision store; every thing about was kept in strictly military order. He is visited every year by bands of Indians, who lay around for several days receiving presents of beef, flour, meal, tobacco, coffee, sugar &c. When he has given them as much as he intends he will have nothing more to do with them for they will not leave as long as he pays any attention to them.

On one occasion, five hundred warriors came and encamped near the house; not coming in to receive presents, he knew that they had come with evil intentions; gathering his force of hands and arming them, he was prepared to give them a warm reception. The Indians committed petty depredations by killing his dogs and sheep, stampeding his cattle and trying in every manner to provoke him to make the first attack by shooting some of them, which would have given them an excuse to murder, plunder and burn. They would not make the first attack, fearing the vengeance of the Great Father at Washington. Cap't Craig knowing this, ordered his men not to fire at them under any consideration, except to repel an open attack; failing in their object, after a trial of four or five days, they left.

The Cap't offered us his farm of 50,000 acres for four dollars per acre; not thinking it suitable for the colony, we gave him no encouragement, but told him plainly that it would not suit us. The grasshoppers were just making their appearance, and were nowing [gnawing] off the grass, cutting off the clover tops, trimming up the trees and vines, and destroying vegetation generally, several men were employed driving the marauders into the Huerfanno, there to be devoured by hungry trout.

Mr. Kenyon gave us his experience in gardening one year. He said he bought him a small farm, put several acres in cabbage and the bal-

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ance in corn for roasting ears, as these crops commanded the highest prices in the mines. When the cabbage was full grown and ready for the market, a huckster from the mines stopping there offered him five thousand dollars for the crop of cabbage; he asked his gardener if he had better sell it, who told him that he could make considerable more out of it, if he would take it up to the mines and sell it; he therefore concluded not to sell it. On the next day a cloud of grasshoppers came over the country fairly darkening the sky, clearing off vegetation as they went. On the next day, he went out to see how they were progressing in their work of destruction, and such a sight as met his eyes; the cabbage was all gone, not a leaf or stock remained, they had eaten the stock and roots out clean, and the ravenous fellows were sitting up on the edge of the hole peeping down into it, to see if they had left a particle there. He went to the corn field, and there they were taking it a row at a time, cleaning it as they went; thus was his summers work carried away within two days, without one cent of remuneration.

[BACK TO PUEBLO AND COLORADO CITY; JUNE 14]

On the 14" at 9:40 we leave the hospitable mansion of Cap't Craig, leaving Mr. Kenyon and Col. Wodell there. Our clever Mexican with his four fast nags, landed us in Pueblo in two and a half hours, taking dinner at the Chilcott House. After dinner we look about the town; the houses with two or three exceptions were built of adobes, or sundried brick, and to make them more durable are plastered on the outside with cement, and when marked off in oblong squares, gives the appearance of stone blocks, which makes a building of much size look massive; this was the case with Capt Craigs house, warehouse, and barn.

At two oclock we leave Pueblo. When reaching the suburbs of the town, we were hailed by a girl poorly clad, carrying a bundle; she was apparently about twelve years of age. The driver stopped his team, reaching us nearly out of breath she asked to be carried to Denver, saying she wanted to go to her mother who lived there. But having no money and the messenger fearing her story was not true, declined taking her. She begged most earnestly and tearfully, but he was immovable, and when the coach started she screamed most piteously. We would have paid her fare, but not knowing her true situation, concluded not to risk it. The scenery along the road was very fine especially so at El Paso. About midway between Pu-

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eblo and Colorado City we passed many long ranges of sharp cone shaped buttes standing isolated, many miles from the mountains.

Arriving at Colorado City at 9. P. M. we take supper and soon after, being tired, we turn into our beds and are soon dreaming of home and the loved ones awaiting our return. On the morning of the 15 we arose early and started at 4:30 for a walk to the Garden of the Gods, which looks but a short distance, after a long walk we reached it, and climbing around over the rocks a short time, and enjoying it's fine scenery we start back to the Hotel, where we eat a very hearty breakfast, and find we had enjoyed a morning walk of about five miles.

We hire a man and team with a spring wagon, to take us to the most important points, agreeing to pay him eight dollars for his services, and after preparing ourselves with lemon sugar and a good article of brandy, not forgetting a lunch, we start in company with Mr. Hatch of St. Louis, driving up between two perpendicular ridges of high rocks for some distance we soon arrive at the Gateway to the Garden of the Gods, which is a perpendicular cleft in the rocks some fifty feet in width through which we enter; some fifty or sixty feet within this Gateway and to the right, some enterprising fellow had built a house about twelve by fourteen feet in size, the floor was laid, the windows and door frames were cased, the sash had not been put in, nor the door hung. The smooth woodwork within was covered with the names of visitors from all parts of the world, written with pencil, and to perpetuate the name of the Ohio Soldiers Colony we did likewise.

The next point of interest was Lone Rock, standing some two hundred and fifty or three hundred feet high, and seventy or eighty feet in width by about one hundred and fifty feet in length. Within this rock is a cave, large enough to accommodate a very large congregation of people. It's ceiling is sixty or seventy feet high. The only entrance is through a small opening on it's western side, barely large enough to admit a good sized man. On entering we strike a light and by it's dim flickering, we wind our way upward, twenty five or thirty feet, until we reach the floor of the cave which extends further than our dim light could penetrate. Fearing to disturb the slumbers of a grizzly bear or rattlesnake we went no farther in the dark but contented ourselves by singing hallooing, and shooting our revolvers the report of which was deafening. On coming out of the cave, we slide through without difficulty. Two tall shafts of rock three hundred feet high, and eight or ten feet in diameter standing near each other are known as the twins.

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Another high ridge of rocks has the appearance of a huge Cathedral with pinnacles and turrets pointing to the sky, some of which, looking from one position, appeared like a huge lion rearing up on his hind feet while his paws were resting on a large seal. We climbed one very high rock, and from it's summit our eyes beheld a scene that we will not attempt to describe. On our left was a high perpendicular ridge of rock filled with seams and stratums running upward at an angle of about twenty degrees, and all bearing southward. On our right, Pikes Peak with it's snowy cap, and many turreted foot hills, and spurs, formed an almost impenetrable barrier; while to the southward stretched a beautiful valley to a mountain spur running eastward. Through the southern part of this valley ran a beautiful, clear, cold stream of water, formed by the melting mountain snows, and boiling fountains, these fountains were called by the Mexicans "Fountaine Que Boille." This stream watered a few well cultivated fields on either side. This portion of the valley was called Pleasant Park; while that portion in which we stood, with its mighty rocks and monuments, was known as the Garden of the Gods. Indeed these mighty rocks looked as though they had been thrown up as cinders from the fierce fires of Vulcan when he was forging the trident for Neptune that shook both land and sea.

From here we go to the creek, and following it up about one mile, reach the Boiling Springs, or Soda springs. Here we found three springs of water, boiling up out of the rock, two on the north and one on the south side of the creek, the larger one being used for bathing and the two smaller for drinking    several parties were here, one of which consisted of a whole family with wagons and tents who had come to test it's medicinal qualities. These springs have a wide reputation among the Indians for their healing virtues. The earth for many feet around is encrusted with a soda formation to the depth of several feet. We remained here one or two hours bathing, and drinking copiously of the invigorating water. By stirring two or three teaspoonfulls of lemon-sugar into a tumbler full of the water, it would effervesce, making a very agreeable and pleasant drink and put to blush the soda water sold at the most fashionable resorts. Leaving here we drive as far as the road is passable, when we alight and make an ascent up the mountain side, until we can clearly define the limits of vegetation, beyond which a belt of barren craggy rocks reach upward to the snowy capped summit, where the melting snows form that beautiful stream we had just left, which empties into the Arkansas river twenty five or thirty miles to the southeast.

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After gathering several specimens of rock from the mountain, we descended to the wagon, and returned to the springs, and after a refreshing draught, returned to the Hotel for dinner with ravenous appetites. After dinner we visit Monumental Park, about five miles north of Colorado City. Here the formation is entirely different from any we have seen, being limestone and quartz pebbles cemented together, round monuments of this formation rise from twenty to fifty [feet] high, all capped by a slab of limestone, wherever we saw this slab displaced, the shaft was crumbling away; the time will come when they will entirely disappear. Standing here and looking around us, we might easily fancy that we were within some great antedeluvian cemetery dedicated to the burial of Giants of the Preadamatic age. . . .

Gathering many specimens of agates, quartz and other curious stones, we are hurried through a deep chasm in the rocks, that has been blasted and torn to pieces, by miners in search of gold. The whole face of the country here appears to have been turned up. We were too much hurried to make a careful examination of the rock. Returning we arrive at the Hotel near sunset. The town is going to decay, no evidences of improvement are visible. The Denver and Rio Grande R. R. is located about one and a half miles east, and the probabilities are that a town of some importance will be built on the road. [37] Pikes Peak, Soda Springs, Garden of the Gods, Pleasant, and Monumental Parks, and other natural curiosities will make this point one of the most fashionable resorts in the future, east of the Rocky Mountains.

[AGAIN IN DENVER, JUNE 16-18]

Leaving here at 9:30 P. M. in a crowded coach, we are rolled, bounced, and tumbled, all night and arrive at Denver at noon on the 16", stopping at the Tremont House.

In the evening we were taken through the Boullevard at the rate of 2.40 by Geo Mathews, enjoying a fine ride and fine scenery. Sent our clothes to the Chinese washerman Ung Sang to see if he could do any better than Wang Shang had done the week before. We met Judge Devereaux who requested us to remain here, until he would return from Idaho on Saturday, that he might show us some lands lying in the eastern part of the County, he said he would sell at a reasonable price, sufficient land for the Colony, and the company would obligate themselves to construct a canal of sufficient capacity to irrigate them.

TOURING KANSAS AND COLORADO IN 1871   373

On the morning of the 17" we visit many places of importance among them the U. S. branch Mint, where we see gold in all shapes, in quartz, fine dust, nuggets, and in bars, and are interested with a minute description of the various processes through which it passes from it's unearthing until it is made into glittering coin. We buy a few stereoscopic views of Rocky Mountain scenery; send specimens of cactus home by Express.

We are shown a box in which a peculiarly destitute individual, away from home and friends, had sought to tear himself from these tempting surroundings, and place himself within the pale of civilization. He had constructed this box of half inch pine lumber, about five and a half feet in length, and two feet square, with strips two inches wide, nailed around each end and one third it's length from the ends; between the middle rows of slats on one side he had constructed a door, opening inside, it's ends being hidden under the strips, it could not be discovered. In one end, he had fastened a box, in which to carry provision, fifteen inches from this, he made a net work of strong twine across the box, with a hole through the center to admit his head, to keep it from striking against the end of the box, in case it should be thrown with that end down. There were one or two slat partitions within, through which he could brace himself. Putting in a supply of provision, and marking on the side that had the door in "Handle with care, Keep this side up," and directing it to himself to some town in Mass., he went to the Express office and told them to call at a certain house in the morning, and get a box and forward to Mass.

In the morning he opened the box; got into it; closed the door; the Agt. took it to the Depot; but owing to the light material of which it was made and not being bound sufficiently strong to insure it's safe transit, he concluded not to send it until the parties shipping it would make it stronger; whereupon they put it into the Office, instead of on the cars. The peculiar construction of the box excited the curiosity of many, among whom was Rob't Wilson who seeing a small knot hole in the box tried to look into it; seeing the palm of some persons hand pressed against it on the inside; he left the room, locking the door and securing the services of an Officer; arrived just as the man was climbing out of the box. He was arrested and taken before the Mayor, but as they could find no law that he had transgressed he was liberated and forced to try some other means to reach home.

We read of the death of C. L. Vallandingham in the Evening Trib-

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une, which had occurred at 10 oclock that day. [38] We visit the farms of Dr. [J. H.] Morrison and Gen. Bierce, [39] which are in a very high state of cultivation. Their residences are on an eminence north west of the City, and overlooking the country many miles around. The hillsides are terraced and planted with grapes. These farms show what irrigation at the proper time will do. Gen. Bierce is President of the Territorial board of Agriculture. Dr. Morrison is also an Officer of the board; both are scientific men and gentlemen. In the afternoon we visit the Fair grounds, and Trotting Park; saw quite an exciting race.

On the 18" we take dinner with Dr. Morrison; Fred Clifton secty of the board of agriculture; Maj. Clelland and his father, who was visiting him from N. Y. and Mr. Waite, a very wealthy resident of Denver; dinner was served at the Tremont House and was a very fine one. In the afternoon some of us accompanied Mr. Clifton out on Clear creek, where were many farms, the owners of which, appeared to be in easy circumstances. Here we scraped up out of the grass, alkali, as white as snow, specimens of which we brought home with us. In the evening we make arrangements with Col. Fry to accompany Gen'l Devereaux to those lands in the eastern part of the County, and report to us at Fort Scott, Kansas, within one week.

And now we prepare to leave the most interesting place we have yet seen.    we will in after life recall many pleasant memories of Denver City and it's very generous and hospitable people. This City of some ten or twelve thousand inhabitants, at an altitude of five thousand feet, with a long range of mountains on the west, with their snow covered peaks reaching above the clouds; the mining interests, and the many natural curiosities surrounding it, and the extensive boulevard of many miles of the finest road in the world, all combine to make it one of the most frequent points of the tourist seeking pleasure or health. For the first two or three days after our arrival here, a sensation of dizziness overcame us, our nostrils were filled up, and our respiration was difficult, we would often gasp in breathing as though our lungs were not large enough to contain the air required to keep up life. We passed a slaughter house, where we saw a pile of offal composed of the intestines of animals killed, beef heads and legs cut off with the hide on. This pile had lain here, between one and two years, but there was no offensive smell from it, the

TOURING KANSAS AND COLORADO IN 1871   375

whole pile appeared to be drying up and crumbling away. So rare is the air, that consumptives reaching that altitude are quickly benefitted, or soon relieved by death.

[BACK TO KANSAS, JUNE 19]

At 9 oclock P. M. we bid farewell to our kind friends, and start for Salina Ka. On the morning of the 19" we awoke at Carson City. Many wagon trains were here loading for the south. The sky is clear, and the hot sultry winds are almost suffocating; making our faces fairly burn we change our position for relief. Mirages were almost continually in view. Fine lakes could be seen near the horizon, with the waves rippling and rolling over their silvery surfaces, and their shores lined with a beautiful foliage of green groves. As we would near them, they would vanish away, and others appear in the distance. The scenery grows monotonous, we become weary and long for civilization. We arrive at Salina at 8:35 P. M. call on the Gov't land Ag't; find no lands of sufficient quantity for our purpose; being too near the limits of dry weather.

June 20" we start early and arrive at Junction City at 9 oclock A. M. Visiting the Land Ag't here, we find 150,000 acres of land belonging to the Government and the K. P. R. R. Co. alternately that can be bought at an average of four dollars per acre, and we request the Ag't to hold it until he hears from us, as we are satisfied that we cannot get lands sufficient for the Colony under the homestead law. Leaving Junction City at 11:30 A. M. via, the M. K & T. R. R. we pass down the valley of the Neosho.

[IN ALLEN AND LABETTE COUNTIES, JUNE 20-22]

Stopping at Parkers for dinner, we arrive at Humbolt at 8: P. M. and stop at the Hildreth House, and while supper was being prepared, went to the Post Office receiving letters from home and from the headquarters of the Colony, telling us to go into Texas and see what could be done there, as the Colony would have no objections to going there.

The 21st we spend in writing letters and keeping up our memorandum; are called upon by some of Mr. Bostwick's relatives who reside here. We see more drunkenness here than we have seen in all our travels so far. The land in this region is well improved, where it is not owned by speculators. We could hear of no lands suitable for the Colony. Humbolt is situated on the east bank of the Cottonwood on high land, the soil is thin in and about the town, underlaid by a thick stratum of limestone; through which the blasting of wells is attended with great expense. One was being blasted near the

376   THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

Hotel while we were there, each blast was succeeded by a perfect hail of stone on the roof.

On the 22d at 8:30 A. M. we start for Parsons. Just before arriving there, we fell in company with the Editor of a paper published at New Chicago, [40] on the L. L. & G. R. R; who told us that a very large amount of land had just been put on the market, by that road and that the lands were situated southwest from that place. On arriving at Parsons we took the next train back to New Chicago, and visiting the Ag't there, found that a difficulty was existing between the L. L. & G. R. R. and the M. K. & T. R. R. Co's as to the titles. Consequently no lands could be bought, and we thought it unnecessary to visit any of them. Two rival towns have sprung up here within a quarter of a mile of each other, near the Junction of these two roads. Like most of the western towns, the people were very anxious to encourage the location of a Colony near them. We found a Mr. Smith, who lived near the bridge in Cinthyan [Cynthiana] Ky. while the 118" Reg't of Ohio troops were guarding it; he seemed to take great interest in the welfare of the b-hoys [boys?] many of whom, some of us were acquainted with.

[TO INDIAN TERRITORY, JUNE 23]

On the 23d we left for Big Cabin, [41] Indian Ter. The soil appears richer and the general appearance of the country finer as we get farther south. The southern portion of Kansas is very fine, large fields of waving grain were just being gathered, while thrifty fields of corn were putting forth their bloom at from ten to fifteen feet above the ground; all vegetation seems rank and with the cattle on a thousand hills, seemed to invite the industrious emigrant to settle here. As we pass into Indian Territory the land becomes more level, and until we pass some distance through it, no habitations are visible.

The inhabitants of this section of the country, like the Heathen Chinee "are rather peculiar"; they boarded the train while running at the rate of thirty miles per hour, and kept a continual skirmish-

TOURING KANSAS AND COLORADO IN 1871   377

ing with the passengers. These miscreants are known there as the Green Fly, and are so troublesome that horses and cattle cannot venture into the fields during the day unless sewn up in covers, the consequence is, we see no herds of cattle nor horses in use as we pass through, the cattle retire to the groves during the day and graze at night, in order to escape these pests, while the horses are kept in their stables during the day, and worked at night, having to be well protected when working at any other time. The work of grading the M. K. & T. R. R. was continued only by moon light, while these pests were about, they remain but a few weeks, then entirely disappear to the relief of all.

Arriving at Big Cabin we find a shed about ten by twenty feet, which answers for Ticket Office, Express Office, and Freight Depot; another shed some fifty yards above the depot was used at Hotel and boarding house. Some sixty yards east of the depot was a Grocery and Refreshment Saloon. This building was weather boarded with the boughs of trees and shingled with army blankets. Stepping in we refresh ourselves with a glass or two of iced lemonade, when we seat ourselves on a rude bench in the shade and take a survey of the surrounding country, while some half dozen men are talking over the current events of the day. One of our party enquired of these men how far the Cherokee Indians lived, and was shown several farm houses in different directions, located near the timber along the streams. Waving fields of grain, and corn and fine gardens surrounded them. Large herds of cattle and horses were lying in the groves out of the reach of the tormenting flies. These they said were residences of the Cherokees. At this we were rather surprised and expressed ourselves in regard to the different habits of these civilized Indians and the savage and half civilized tribes through whose country we had passed.

We were then asked if we had ever seen any of the Cherokee Indians, answering them in the negative. We were told to look at the men surrounding us, as they are all Indians, with one exception. At this we are more surprised than ever, as there is but one person in the group, whom we would have charged with the crime of having any Indian blood in him. They enjoyed themselves with a hearty laugh at our expense; after which we all join in telling stories. The Indians coming out ahead.    after shooting at target awhile with them, using Mr. Huffman's Ballard rifle, we go to supper.

Finding it impossible for us to get transportation through to Texas on account of the Green Fly, except by traveling altogether at night. This we did not fully appreciate and concluded to retrace our steps,

378   THE KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

and in company with Gov. Harvey and suit of [42] Topeka Ka. who had been on an excursion down to Pryor Creek, a few miles below us, we start for Fort Scott Ka. We found the Gov. to be quite a gentleman, and very willing to communicate all the information at his command, in regard to lands in Kansas. From him we received information of the sale of the Kaw lands by sealed bids, [43] directed to the Secretary of the Interior at Washington, said bids to be received until the following July. These lands were being sold by the Government for the benefit of the Kaw Indians.

Among the passengers was a gentleman from Texas who had just made the trip through. He said we were very sensible in not undertaking the journey to Texas at this time as it was almost an impossibillity to get through. He had a horned frog which he was taking to New York, having captured it in Texas.

[ARRIVAL AT FORT SCOTT, JUNE 24]

Arriving at Fort Scott on the 24" at 2:30 A. M. we stop at the Fort Scott House, where we sleep until late breakfast in the morning. We receive no letters here as we had expected. The land Agents here could give us but little information in regard to lands in this section. There was great trouble existing at this time in regard to the Joy lands. [44] The settlers having preempted it as Government land, at the same time Joy held a patent from the Government for the same lands. We endeavor to get passes to Junction City, the Agent promising to telegraph to Sedalia for them. In the meantime we look at the country around Fort Scott.

Bostwick and Anderson go some five or six miles into the country, to visit Dr. Hayes, a friend of Bostwick's. The country is very rolling and bluffy in many places along the streams. Limestone and coal crop out in all the ravines, and along the streams, yet the soil appears strong and very productive, being the finest fruit section of Kansas. Standing on an eminence on the farm of Dr. Hayes an extensive view of the surrounding country was had. Fine looking farms and Villages could be seen on all sides. To the eastward good farms and residences in the State of Missouri could easily be seen. The

TOURING KANSAS AND COLORADO IN 1871   379

Doctor returned with them. A very drenching rain came up on their return, and continued unceasingly for two hours, when it abated but continued raining all night. We took supper with the Doctor at the Wilder House, [45] after which we were entertained by a negro in the Office with music, songs and dancing, when we seek our beds at the Fort Scott House.

At eight o'clock on the morning of the 25" the rain subsided, the sun came out brightly and the atmosphere became very hot and oppressive. We write to our friends at home and attended the Methodist Church, sermon from the words "If you gain the whole world and lose your own soul &c. In the evening we attend the same church and hear a very impressive sermon on prayer. An English book canvasser from St. Louis stopping at the same house with us appeared deeply concerned, and being called upon offered up a fervent petition, the greater part of which, was for the benefit of one of our own party.

On the 26" we post our letters, and going to the R. R. Agent, we find no passes for us yet.    the Agent told us that the Superintendent was absent from home. We conclude to wait until the next morning, and if we do not get them, to proceed on our own account. After which we take a survey of the City, which is the seat of Bourbon County, and situated on the Marmaton river. At one time it was quite a formidable Military post, [46] built for the protection of the Missouri frontier, and was a great trading post with the Indians. The old Government Barracks are still standing and occupied as residences, having wide flights of steps ascending to deep porticoes above the basements, large windows and doors all fronting the Public Square around which they are built; large trees standing within the court formed by these buildings give signs of having been planted many years before. The buildings were erected parallel to the river, without regard to the points of the compass. This gives the place a bad appearance, for, being near the business portion of the City, which is built at right angles with the points of the compass, gives the streets an abrupt termination where they strike these old monuments of the past. There is a great spirit of enterprise among the residents, vieing with each other in the encouragement of manufactures in their midst. In the evening we attend church.

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[EN ROUTE NORTH, JUNE 27-28]

June 27" Not getting the desired passes we start this morning for Americus, and after riding all day, over the same road we had travelled before, with a few pleasing incidents thrown in to dispel the monotony, we arrive there in the evening and stop at the Goddard House. Here Mr. Huffman found a distant relative of the same name a Physician and Druggist; at least they thought they were relatives, as they were both acquainted with Old Aunt Hannah in Kentucky. Mr. Bostwick also, found an old female acquaintance whom he had known in Mount Vernon. We were enlivened with music by a daughter of our Hostess, Mrs. Goddard.

June 28" At three oclock this morning a fearful storm of wind and rain came up making us think of seeking safety outside of the house, it passed over however without damage. At ten oclock we start out in a wagon with R. W. Randall Agent for the Kaw trust lands, we pass over some of the trust lands which are very fine, also R. R -- and individual lands. We find some very good farms along the Creek but found nothing, except in the Reservation that would answer the Colony. Mr. Randall gave us all the necessary papers and directions for putting in bids for the Kaw lands.

Americus is situated at the southern extremity of the Kaw Reservation on an almost level plain, for which the reservation is noted. There is fall enough to carry the water from the town southward. There is one United Presbyterian Church; two large dairies the machinery of which is propelled by wind, a very common means of propelling everything in the west, from Lyons City, or the city of stakes in Dickenson Co. Ka. to the powers that be in the great corporate body in the town of Greeley, Colorado. Town lots range in price from twenty five to two hundred dollars. Land sells at from four to twenty dollars per acre. The soil is black and is from two to ten feet deep. We visited one of the dairies and was shown the modus operandi of a Cheese Mill.

In the afternoon we leave for Junction City. Passing through the Kaw Reservation we count sixty six stone houses, built at intervals near the timber skirting the Osage [Neosho] river. [47] These houses were built by the Government for the use of this tribe, and they fully appreciate this kindness by living in tents or wigwams and huts near by, and keeping their horses and ponies in the houses.

TOURING KANSAS AND COLORADO IN 1871   381

Some of the Indians have been so generous that they have used the floors and roofs of their buildings for fuel, too lazy to carry wood from the timber a few yards distant. How is that? for "Lo the poor Indian." Their Reservation is nine miles in width from east to west, and fourteen miles in length.

[IN GEARY AND DICKINSON COUNTIES, JUNE 29-30]

Arriving in Junction City at 11: oclock at night, we stop at the Wakefield House near the Depot; crawl into a bed of dingy hue and lay awake until morning. June 29", We attempt to force down the most unpalatable mess of stuff for breakfast that we ever saw dished up but it was no use.    quitting in disgust we called for our baggage, paid our bills with emphasis, and left them two dollars and twenty five cents richer in purse, and no poorer in provision than we found them, but alas! for our poor stomachs. We proceeded to the Pacific House, where we deposited our traps and then called on Capt. [A. C.] Pierce, the ag't of the K. P. R. R. lands. Looking over his plats, we conclude to visit Dickenson County. Starting out at ten oclock in a carriage with W. H. Wize (Pierce's clerk) we travel to the Southeast until 2:30 P. M. when we stop at the farm house of the Heuston brothers, where we feed our horses and get dinner. These three brothers own five thousand one hundred acres of land, two hundred of which are nearly enclosed by a stone fence, and under a high state of cultivation. They had five hundred head of cattle and two hundred head of calves, and were employing twenty men. [48]

Here we found a new species of potato bug, being smaller than the old striped potato bug and of a dark slate color, with no stripes; they were doing much damage to the crop. Continuing our course southward through Dickenson Co; thence northeast we pass over high rolling prairie, our only objection to the land is, that it is rather too high, and would be subject to greater damage from drouth. Just as the Sun was nestling it's self for the night in a bed of varigated prairie flowers in the west, just at that time in the evening when feelings of loneliness and solitude are apt to overcome us, Our attention was suddenly arrested by seeing stakes driven into the ground, and we think we are intruders within the sacred resting place of the Red Warrior, but alighting from the carriage, we found that the stakes were numbered and marked, showing the Public Square, the broad Avenues and streets, College Block, Bank Block, Post Office Block, Fountain Square, and all those places, that looked so

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well on the plat in Junction City. This was Lyons City, [49] the great metropolis to which the industrious Ohio Colonist was to bring the fruits of his honest toil, and exchange for filthy lucre, or the rich products of foreign climes, which we were told would pour in from all parts of the world. Like the Queen of Sheba we thought the half had not been told.

Not a house was visible, except a farm house, about one mile to the eastward, to which we proceeded. Here we found Mr. Gillette stacking wheat, he offered us the hospitalities of his house until morning, which we gladly accepted. His farm consists of four hundred acres, eighty of which are under cultivation. The wheat crop was sown on raw prairie turned up only two inches in depth; it was now being gathered, and would average from thirty to forty bushels per acre. The improvements had all been made since April 1st 1870. Here was the first time we had ever seen raw bacon sliced and put on the table to eat, we had eaten it when we were compelled to from want of fire to cook it, but thought this a little too saving of labor, even for an Aboriginal, being somewhat squeamish on the subject of Trichina Spiralis we refrained from eating it. A heavy storm of wind and rain came up during the night.

June 30" We start in the morning going to the northeast and cross Lyon Creek. The country is rolling, with deep rich soil, and limestone and clay subsoil. Fruit trees grow very fast, peach trees reaching five feet in height the second year. Arriving at Junction City at noon, we proceed to the Pacific House for dinner. After which we call at Cap't Pierces Office, and learn that the man of whom we had hired the horses, was raising a fuss and had charged extra for over driving. We immediately called on him and very forcibly impressed on his mind that he was mistaken. We paid him the amount we had agreed upon, and left him to swindle some one else if he could. We get plats of the different sections, over which we had passed, not forgetting Lyon City, after which we are ready to leave. In the afternoon we found Mr. Dust an Agent for the Nurseries at Sidney Ohio, who was doing a good business selling trees in this section of the west.

At 10:30 P. M. we go to the Depot to take the train for Kansas

TOURING KANSAS AND COLORADO IN 1871   383

City, but the train being delayed twenty four hours in consequence of an accident to a freight train west, so we returned to the Hotel, to wait until nine oclock the next day, for the accommodation running from Junction City to Kansas City. We listen for some time to cornet music, by a Proffessor who was instructing a band here.

[EN ROUTE EAST, JULY 1-3]

July 1st was clear and cool. We leave at nine oclock, and after a dusty and wearisome ride arrive at State Line at five oclock P. M. Stopping at the Kaw Valley House, we brush off the dust, take a wash and are ready for supper. Maj Bostwick went up to St. Joseph on the first train to see a relative. Huffman and Anderson visited the Opera House to hear Duprez and Benedict's Minstrels, a first class troupe but a second class performance. On the 2d rain began falling about five oclock in the morning and continued until noon. In the afternoon we take a walk through the City. Bostwick came back in the evening.

On the 3d we leave at 6:30 A. M. Stopping at the Ives House in Sedalia we got a good dinner. In the afternoon we were shown through the town by one of the residents. Some very costly residences are built here, chiefly owned by Railroad Nabobs, Land Sharks and note shavers. An Indian show was advertized here today. We invest, and go in. On entering we find about one dozen Indians painted after the most approved style of Indian toilette, with no covering but breech cloth and leggins, they were dancing their different dances, whooping and Yelling like demons. They were taking considerable whiskey. One of the proprietors of the institution told us that it generally took a pint of whiskey each to get a first class Indian entertainment out of them. The perspiration was rolling down their bodies, washing great channels through the different colored paints with which they were smeared. Their performance might have been interesting to persons who had never seen Indians, but as we had been among them for the past seven weeks, they had no attractions for us, and we left before the conclusion of the performance. A very hard storm came up lasting about one hour.

We left Sedalia at 9:30 P. M. with a band of musicians who were going to blow their brains out, celebrating the glorious old fourth of July, they discoursed excellent music, -- and we soon fell asleep. When we awoke they were gone and the fourth of July was dawning upon us. The train stopped a few minutes at Washington, when it was boarded by an army of women and girls selling fruit, coffee and refreshments.

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[IN ST. LOUIS, JULY 4-5]

We arrive at St. Louis at 6:30 and stop at the Clarendon Hotel. Here we find everybody celebrating the day [with] military and civic processions: flags displayed from all publick buildings and many private residences. We receive letters from home: saw the steam man that created such an excitement in the eastern cities. Mr. Huffman having paid his fare from Kansas City, we succeed in getting a pass for him to Cincinnati. In the evening we witness a fine display of fireworks, the whole City is in a blaze with many colored lights and it is near midnight before they cease.

On the morning of the 5" at five oclock, we visit fifth street market, the best we have ever seen every thing offered for sale, as well as the persons offering them presented a neat appearance, a perfect system pervades the whole concern. During the day we write up our report, giving a full statement of the country passed over, recommending the Colony to call another convention, and amend their constitution, giving a committee power to buy Government or cheap Railroad lands, and recommending the appointing of another Committee, and that they be instructed to visit Texas, and if they could not suit themselves there, to return and visit the Osage lands in Reno and Sedgewick Counties, which could be bought for One dollar and twenty five cents per acre, also to visit the Railroad lands in Dickinson County, which could be bought at an average of four dollars per acre, we give our preference to Reno and Sedgewick Counties. In the evening we visit DeBarr's Opera House to hear Miss Lisa Webber.

[BACK TO CINCINNATI, JULY 6]

On the 6" We leave St Louis at eight oclock in the morning on the lightning express. Take dinner at Vincennes Ind. and arrive at Cincinnati at 8:30 P. M. Mr. Huffman being quite unwell at St. Louis, and appearing to get worse during the day, we were quite uneasy about him.

On the morning of the 7" we meet at Mr. Huffmans residence on Walnut Hills; find him improving in health, we sign the report and hand it to the Secty. who had called on us there, with Mr. Mills, Mr. Chase, Norton and others. On the morning of the 8" Anderson and Bostwick proceed to their respective homes. Thus ending the duties of the first Committee for the location of the Ohio Soldiers Colony.

"Haec olim meminisse juvabit."[50]

Notes

27. Anderson was somewhat confused on the subject of time changes.
28. Members of the St. Louis-Western colony settled at Evans in the spring of 1871. The colony had been organized the previous year at Oakdale, Ill., as the Western colony, but headquarters were later moved to St. Louis and the name changed. The colony was only moderately successful. -- James F. Willard, "The Union Colony at Greeley, Colorado, 1869-1871," in University of Colorado Historical Collections, Boulder, v. 1 (1918), p. xvii.
29. Although the Union colony was organized under the advice and patronage of Horace Greeley, its founder was Nathan Cook Meeker, agricultural editor of the New York Tribune. Meeker came to the territory in the summer of 1869 and after a general examination of the country, conceived the plan of establishing a colony. Greeley entered into the scheme with enthusiasm and offered free use of the columns of the Tribune to bring the matter to public notice. Union colony was formally organized at a meeting held at Cooper Institute, New York, December 28, 1869. By the following April a locating committee had selected a site on the delta formed by the South Platte and Cache la Poudre rivers, near the Denver Pacific railroad, and the first settlers arrived within a month. -- Frank Hall, History of the State of Colorado (Chicago, Blakely Printing Company, 1889), v. 1, pp. 531, 532.
30. A reference to Horace Greeley's What I Know of Farming, published in 1871.
31. Nathan Cook Meeker, president of the colony, was editor of the Greeley Tribune. The first issue was dated November 16, 1870. Meeker had been a war correspondent representing the New York Tribune at General Grant's headquarters, and subsequently became agricultural editor of that newspaper. -- David Boyd, A History: Greeley and the Union Colony of Colorado (Greeley, Colo., the Greeley Tribune Press, 1890), pp. 16, 83.
32. Wm. N. Byers arrived in Denver early in 1859. He brought newspaper equipment across country by wagon and printed the first issue of the Rocky Mountain News, Denver, on April 23, 1859. -- Hall, op cit., p. 184.
33. John Evans, territorial governor of Colorado, 1862-1865.
34. The Chicago-Colorado colony was organized in Chicago in 1870. Its president was the famous Unitarian preacher and lecturer, Robert Collyer. Center of the Colorado site was the present town of Longmont and settlement began in March, 1871. -- Willard, op cit., p. xvii.
35. Peter Magnes is credited with being the father of sugar beet growing in Colorado. He began to grow sugar beets in the Platte valley in the 1860's and advocated sugar making 30 years before the first factory was built in the state. -- Alvin T. Steinel, History of Agriculture in Colorado . . . (State Agricultural College, Fort Collins, 1926), p. 283.
36. While he was investigating western lands in 1869 for the Union colony, N. C. Meeker wrote descriptive letters to the New York Tribune. On October 22 he wrote: "He [Col. Wm. Craig] is the agent of the St. Vrain grant, and has several miles square, which is his own property. He has built a large and elegant house and furnished it handsomely, has a model barn, several hundred head of hogs, vast herds of cattle and a large number of Mexicans as hired help. In many respects he is situated like a baron of olden times. In his garden are all kinds of small fruits; he has apples, peaches and pears yet too young to bear, while clear streams of water run by foot-paths and around flower beds. When it is to be considered that everything had to be hauled by wagons 600 miles from the Missouri river, and that all these improvements have been made since the war, it must be seen that vast work was required. . . . As we were in haste Colonel Craig sent us forward in his fine ambulance, drawn by four elegant horses." -- Boyd, op cit. p. 22.
37. Colorado Springs fulfilled Anderson's look into the future.
38. Clement L. Vallandigham was a well-known lawyer and politician of Ohio. During a murder trial he accidentally shot himself while illustrating the manner in which the victim was shot.
39. Horatio B. Bearce was adjutant general of Colorado and president of the Colorado Agricultural Society. -- The Rocky Mountain Directory and Colorado Gazetteer (1871), p. 264.
40. New Chicago, Neosho County, was laid out in May, 1870, at the crossing of the lines of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas and the Leavenworth, Lawrence and Galveston railroads. The town made slow progress in the beginning. Trains were running on the M. K. & T., but there was no station here and all building materials, goods, etc., were brought from Humboldt, ten miles away, by team and wagon. With the building of a switch and depot and the subsequent completion to this point of the L. L. & G., business increased. Three other towns were laid out in the immediate vicinity: Alliance, Chicago Junction, and Tioga. Tioga was a bitter rival of New Chicago. After about two years of strife, all four towns were consolidated and the name Chanute was given to the new town in honor of Octavo Chanute, chief engineer of the L. L. & G. -- A. T. Andreas and W. G. Cutler, History of the State of Kansas (Chicago, 1883), pp. 838, 837.
The New Chicago Transcript was published by Geo. C. Crowther. Crowther advertised the Transcript as the leading Republican journal in southern Kansas. -- Smith's Guide to the Southwest . . . (R. F. Smith, publisher, Sedalia, Mo., 1871), p. 192.
41. A point about 30 miles below the southern Kansas border.
42. James M. Harvey, governor of Kansas from January, 1869, to January, 1873.
43. Unsold and unallotted (Kaw) lands -- 181,212 acres -- were offered for sale on sealed bids in 1871. Numerous bids were received, one of which called for the entire amount at $2.42 an acre, but all were rejected on technicalities. -- Paul Wallace Gates, Fifty Million Acres (Ithaca, N. Y., Cornell University Press, 1954), p. 150.
44. James F. Joy, a leading figure in the railroad history of this period, purchased from the government in 1867, at $1.00 an acre, all Cherokee Neutral lands not occupied by settlers and not improved. These lands, situated in the southeast corner of Kansas, comprised the present county of Cherokee, nearly all of Crawford, and a strip about 6 miles wide across the southern part of Bourbon. Joy was promoting the Missouri River, Fort Scott and Gulf railroad (the Fort Scott Line). An estimated 2,000 families were living within the tract at the time of the sale and bitter strife broke out between these settlers and the railroad. U. S. troops were stationed in Crawford and Cherokee counties to preserve order. The conflict was resolved after several years, and emigration poured into the area.
45. The Wilder House, built in 1863, was named for Carter Wilder, brother of Daniel Webster Wilder. It was known for many years as one of the best hotels west of the Mississippi.
46. Fort Scott, named for Gen. Winfield Scott, was established in 1842 on the military road that extended from the upper Mississippi to Louisiana. Troops were withdrawn in 1853 and the city grew up around the buildings. The fort was re-established during the Civil War as Union headquarters and supply depot for southeast Kansas. Several of the old buildings may still be seen on the plaza.
47. Frank Haucke, "The Kaw or Kansa Indians," The Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 20 (February, 1952), p. 43: "The government . . . built some 150 small stone buildings for the use of the individual Indian families. The Kaw Indians did not appreciate these stone houses and continued to live in their tents which they considered more healthful. However, in bad weather, they did stable their ponies in these buildings. Many of the agency buildings still stand on the Haucke land. We have tried to preserve them as much as possible."
48. The U. S. census for 1870 lists the following for one household in Union township, Dickinson county, designating all of them stock raisers and farmers: W. C. N. Houston, George A. Houston, Hunter A. Houston, and Charles M. Houston.
49. "The name of Lyons is given to a new town lately laid out at the junction of West Branch with Lyons creek, in Dickinson county. . . . The proprietors, Messrs. Gillett, Barney, Hunnicutt and others, have evinced a care for the health and comfort of those who shall become citizens, by selecting a healthy and beautiful location for the town site. . . . [The] tract [is] nearly half a mile from the creek, entirely back from the low, boggy and unhealthy bottom land. . . . Town lots, we understand, are to be given to any who desire to improve. Stone for building can be obtained at the cost of quarrying. Land in this vicinity can be purchased at from 3 to 5 dollars per acre. Liberal inducements will be given to all kinds of tradesmen." -- Junction City Union, June 17, 1871.
Woodbine is on the approximate site of Lyons City.
50. The Aeneid of Virgil book 1, line 203. Translation of the passage is: Perhaps it will delight us hereafter to recall even the present things to mind.