Jump to Navigation

Kansas Historical Quarterly - William Clark's Diary

May 1826-February 1831

edited by Louisa BARRY
February 1948 (Vol. 14 No. 1), pages 1 to 39.
Transcribed by lhn and Susan Stafford;
digitized with permission of the Kansas State Historical Society.

I. INTRODUCTION

IN the years of this diary William Clark was superintendent of Indian affairs at St. Louis, and one of the town's most renowned citizens. The superintendency, which he had first received by appointment in May, 1822, covered a wide territory and included most of the Indian tribes on the Western frontier. No man more capable could have been selected for this position, either from the government's standpoint or that of the Indians. Clark was a man of integrity and administrative ability, with years of experience in Indian affairs. His knowledge of their problems and his fair dealings had made him a man of prestige among the Western tribes, which was greatly to the government's advantage.

William Clark was born in Virginia in 1770, ninth of the ten children of John and Ann (Rogers) Clark. The exploits of his famed older brother, George Rogers Clark, undoubtedly influenced William's early choice of a military career; and the removal of the Clark family to the Kentucky frontier region in 1784-1785 encouraged this ambition. Although born in a family of means and social position, he had little formal education. At 19 he was serving in Col. John Hardin's militia campaign against the Indians, a youth of striking appearance, over six feet in height, broad-shouldered, red-haired. At 21 he joined the army as an infantry lieutenant and for four years served under Gen. Anthony Wayne. On Wayne's expedition against the Shawnee Indians in Ohio, during 1794-1795, another junior officer was Meriwether Lewis, with whom Clark was to be associated later. After five years of eventful military service, he resigned his commission. The next few years were spent in travel

(1)

2 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

ing, and in attempting to aid his brother George Rogers Clark in settling financial matters.

In 1803, when he was 33, he was selected to go with Meriwether Lewis on an expedition to the Northwest. When the Lewis and Clark expedition returned to St. Louis in 1806, both men had achieved fame and honors. Meriwether Lewis was appointed governor of Louisiana territory, and the same month, March, 1807, William Clark was made brigadier-general of militia for the territory. In this capacity he was also Indian agent, so that his services in Indian administration dated from 1807.

From this year until his death, St. Louis was Clark's home. In January, 1808, he married Julia Hancock of Fincastle, Va. In August, he purchased property. in St. Louis county; and in January, 1811, bought property on Main, or First, street in St. Louis. [1]

Clark's next important appointment was as governor of Missouri territory in 1813. In this position he was also ex officio superintendent of Indian affairs. During the War of 1812, it was his task to guard the territory's frontier, and to prevent British-incited Indian uprisings. In 1814 he led a small expedition up the Mississippi into British-held country, reaching Prairie du Chien, where he built a post named Fort Shelby, which was soon after captured by the British. When Missouri was preparing for statehood in 1820, Clark was a candidate for governor, but did not attempt an active campaign, being occupied with other matters. He was defeated by his friend Alexander McNair. Clark's first wife died in June of that year. [2] In November, 1821, he married Mrs. Harriet (Kennerly) Radford, [3] widow of Dr. John Radford, and cousin of the first Mrs. Clark.

The following year President Monroe appointed William Clark to the superintendency of Indian affairs at St. Louis, a post newly created by congress. Except for the additional commission in 1824-1825 as surveyor general of the states of Illinois and Missouri, and

WILLIAM CLARK'S DIARY 3

the territory of Arkansas, this was the work to which he devoted the rest of his life. [4]

St. Louis in the years of this diary was growing rapidly. From a population of some 1,000 in 1800, it had grown to an estimated 6,000 by 1830. Founded by the French in 1764, the St. Louis of the latter 1820's contained a large proportion of English-speaking settlers from Indiana, Kentucky and Tennessee. There were also many Negroes, both slave and free. It was the only town of any consequence in Missouri, or in all the area west of the Mississippi. The older section had narrow, crowded, unpaved streets; in the newer part there were broad streets and squares, some paved; and houses of brick. The waterfront area was fairly well built up with warehouses and stores. There was a natural deep channel at the waterfront, and except for a brief frozen-over period in the winter, the Mississippi river at St. Louis was accessible to the largest steamboats. As the commercial metropolis of the West, St. Louis was the depot for the fur trade, and the growing commerce with Santa Fe. The lead mines up the Mississippi were being developed in this period; army supplies were centered at St. Louis for the Western military outposts, and near-by Jefferson Barracks was also a source of much business for the townspeople. There was a vast Indian trade to be supplied, and numerous Indian visitors to the city. Increase of steamboat construction had greatly enlarged the commerce with New Orleans and provided more outlets for trade.

The William Clark diary provides little idea of the life and color of St. Louis. Although "Diary" appears on the cover and as the heading of page one, the word does not aptly describe the contents. This volume was kept as a record in the office of the superintendent of Indian affairs and in it were entered weather and river data, notes on steamboat arrivals and departures, a record of Indians visiting the superintendency, and some items of general and local news.

In another sense also "Diary" is a misnomer since the volume was not intended as a private or personal account. William Clark was undoubtedly its creator, and made some of the entries, but his subagent, or clerks, did most of the recording. Clark's handwriting can be identified from three "first-person" entries, the only such entries in the book. On August 12, 1827, he wrote: "Edmond Clark

4 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

(my Infant Son) died at 81/2 A. M. . . ."; on January 29, 1830, is the statement: "My family went to Jeff. Barracks"; and on February 2, 1830, he noted: "Boys from the College visited my cottage, hunt & scate." There is some emphasis in the local news items on Clark's relatives and associates, which gives the diary an additional personal touch. Rarely, there are bits of humor or pertinent comment in the entries made by Clark's assistants, which add sparkle to an otherwise sober and concise record.

Clark had, during these years, four assistants: a subagent, a translator, and two other clerks. [5] So far as can be determined the individuals who, in addition to Clark, made entries in the diary, were: the subagent Walter B. Alexander, who died on July 16, 1826; his successor John B. Ruland; Jesse Benton, a clerk; John F. A. Sanford, translator and clerk, who left following his appointment as a subagent on the upper Missouri, in mid-July, 1826; Dunning D. McNair, a clerk, who resigned on March 19, 1830; and Augustin Kennerly, who served principally as translator. [6]

It seems no coincidence that this record was started at the time of the Mississippi river flood of 1826, for the meteorological and river-stage data are the backbone of the volume, and the only consistently-recorded entries. There is a superabundance of material on the weather and on river conditions throughout.

The information on steamboat arrivals and departures is not so complete, as a comparison with the lists in contemporaneous St. Louis newspapers has proved. [7] However, since the newspapers sometimes failed to print the weekly steamboat register, the Clark diary fills a few gaps. In 1826t steamboats were no longer a novelty at the port of St. Louis. After the first such arrival, the General Pike, in August, 1817, there had been a yearly increase in river traffic. But in May, 1826, the month and year this diary opens, the Missouri Republican commented:

"Never before this season has our city been frequented by such a vast number of Steam Boats; arrivals are daily, and sometimes as many as three and four of a day.."[8]

The entry of steamboat data as a part of the diary therefore only reflected the growing importance of the river trade. The Indian superintendency offices were on Main, or First street, which

WILLIAM CLARK'S DIARY 5

then afforded a view of the river-front and wharf, so that steamboat arrivals and departures were readily noted.

The recording of data on the comings and goings of the Indians seems the most natural part of the diary. The superintendency at St. Louis served as headquarters for Indian affairs in all the Western area. When Clark was appointed as superintendent in May, 1822, John C. Calhoun, the Secretary of War, wrote him:

I enclose you a Commission as Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis. . . . Altho' the act [under Which the appointment was made] does not appear, from the face of it, to make it a part of your duty, to exercise a superintending control over the Indian Agencies on the Mississippi and Missouri, yet it is believed that such was the intention of Congress in authorizing the appointment of a Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis. You Will accordingly consider the following Indian Agents as under your Superintendence-Major O'Fallon [at Council Bluffs], Mr. Graham [at St. Louis], Mr. Boilvin [at Prairie du Chien], Mr. Forsyth [at Rock Island] and Mr. Taliaferro [at St. Peters]-and also Mr. Menard, the Sub Agent at Kaskaskias. . . [9]

The scope of Clark's authority, thus informally established, came to include several other agencies and subagencies which were later required. Land cessions by the Kansas and Osage tribes, in the treaties of 1825, created a large area west of Missouri and Arkansas for Indian reserves. Subsequently, negotiations were begun with the remnants of Indian tribes east of the Mississippi, and in Missouri and Arkansas territory, to remove to the new lands reserved for them. Thus, the period of the Clark diary was also an era of Indian migrations, and of restlessness on the part of the tribes remaining in the East. Many Indians came every year to see Clark on matters relating to their tribes, and most of the migratory Indians inevitably came through St. Louis on their way west, yet the newspapers almost never mentioned their arrival or departure. The Clark record provides unique data in this respect, but unfortunately, on this subject, too, the diary is incomplete.

For some periods the data on Indians, and on steamboats, were given in separate sections in the diary. The plan was not followed . consistently and since the arrangement only makes for confusion in using the volume it has seemed justifiable to bring all the material together in one chronology for publication. This explains some duplication of entries.

6 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

The diary ends on February 28, 1831, at the end of the book. There is no continuing volume in the collection of "Clark papers" in the Kansas State Historical Society. [10] It seems unlikely that the record would have been so abruptly discontinued. [11] Clark was to serve for seven more years as superintendent of Indian affairs at St. Louis-until his death in 1838-and the few scattered volumes of records in our Society's possession only emphasize the quantity which must have existed at one time in the superintendency office.

II. THE DIARY[12]

May, 1826

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1

           

rising fast

2

           

rising fast

3

           

rising fast

4             rising fast
6             rising fast
7             rising
8             rising still
9             rising
10             rising slow
11             rising slow [13]
12             rose about
1 1/2 inches
13             rose
4 inches
14             rose 1 inch
15             on
a stand
16             rising
a little stand
17 79 a Clear SW 84 a Clear SW rising
a little do
18 78 1/2 Clear do 86 do SE falling
1 inch lost
19 79 do SE 88 Cloudy W fell
3 inches
20 72

Cloudy
& rain

SWS 84 Clear SW fell
1 1/2 inches
21 78

Cloudy

SE 83 Clear SE fell
5 inches
22 70 Cloudy SW 80 Clear E fell
2 1/2 inches
23 79 Cloudy SE 79 Raining S fell
8 inches
24 74 Clear SE 80 Cloudy E fell
8 inches
25 80 Clear do 80 a Clear SE fell
1 inch
26 74 Clear E 82 do do fell
8 inches
27 78 Clear SE 82 Clear S fell
6 inches
29 78 CE do do do E

Fallen
none

30 78 Clear SE do do E

Fell
4 inches

31 78 Clear SE do do S Fell 4 inches [14]

WILLIAM CLARKE'S DIARY 7

REMARKS

1 winds vary from W. to S. W and high
4 Steam Boat "Marietta" arrives from Louisville. Green Master.
6 Steam Boat Machanac arrive [s] from Louisville
8 Mechanic left this [day] for Sangamon River
9 winds from W to SW. The Genl. Coffee [15] left port. Mississippi & Missouri both of them above their junction higher at this time, than they have been since the recollection of the Oldest Inhabitants. at Prairie du Chien the people have been obliged to desert the Town. at Ft Crawford [16] the Troops have been obliged to evacuate the Cantonment and go into Tents some distance back of the Fort. The Missouri has washed away, entirely, the Trading Establishment of a Mr Choteau at the mouth of Kansas (or a little below.) [17] The 1st Regiment on the Missouri have been also obliged to leave their Garrison. Steam Boat Ceolo [18] returned from Prairie du Chien & departed to the Mouth of Ohio Steam Boat Macanac [Mechanic] Departed for the Illinois River & Sangamo Bay
10 Steam Boat[s] Sciotoe & Lawrance arrived from Prarie du Chien & S[t.] Peters The 1st Regiment arrived from Fort Atkinson and Encamped at Bell fontain 10th May 1826 [19] Steam Boat Lawrance arrived from the St Peters River & Falls of St Antoney [20]

8 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

11 Steam Boat Lawrence departed & "Ecclipse" arrived from Florence. Lawrence departed.
12 Steam Boat P[lough] Boy arrivd from Louisville. departed again The river wants 20 Inches of being up to the door of Genl Clarks Stable. [21] Steam boat Coosa [22] arrived from Mobile. Mechanic arrived from Sangamon.
13 Steam boat Mechanic arrvd from Sangamon river. "Marrietta" arrived from Louisville
14 Steam Boat Scioto arrivd. Genl Brown arrivd. Scioto depard 3 Kickapoos arrived from West. One Chief & Two men
15 Genl. Brown departed. 13 Shawnoses men & 1 squaw arrived. Paul Osage Interpreter left here for the Osage [23] 17 Steam Boat "Marietta" departed for Louisville J. B. [24] 18 Kickapoos that arrived on 14th left this [day] Council today with Shawonese, respecting their losses sustained from Whites
21 Steam Boats "Tuscumbia," from "Florence," Liberator N. O & Eclipse fever river arrivd
23 Steam Boat "Tuscumbia" depard for Orleans. Plough Boy arrd [from] Louisville. Shawnese departed for White River
24 Steam Boat Liberator for Orleans Struck a rock & sank 25 P[lough] Boy departed for Louisville 7 Kickapoos (arrivd) (3 Women 1 man & 3 children)
26 Steam Boat Lawrence arrivd from Louisville
27 Steam Boat Lawrence departed for Louisville Steam Boat Eclipse departed for St. Peters
28 The river at 8 oclock this morning is rising a little
29 From every apperance, (the drift), the river has commenced rising again

WILLIAM CLARK'S DIARY 9

30 Steam Boat Marietta arrivd from Louisville
31 The S & Eas[t]wardly winds blow at night generally for 10 days past.

June, 1826

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day Tempera-
ture
at 8 Oclock
Weather
at 8 Oclock
Winds Tempera-
ture at 4 Oclock
Weather
at 4 Ocl.
Winds Rise & fall of River
1 77 Fair S.E. 88 Fair SE Fell 3 Inches
2 80 Clear S.E. 86 Cloudy E Fell 6 Inches
3 80 Cloudy S. 78 Rain W Fell 4 Inches
4 78 Raining S. 78 Rain SE Fell 6 Inches
5 79 Cloudy S.E. 76 Cloudy S Fell 4 Inches
6 76 Cloudy S.E. 79 Raind S Fell 2 Inches
7 81 Clear S.E. 86 Cloudy S Rose 2 Inches
8 80 Clear S.W. 89 Clear S Rose 1 Inch
9 82 Clear S.W. 90 Clear S On a stand
10 82 Clear S.W. 84 Cloudy SW Fell 4 Inches
11 74 Cloudy S.W. 80 Cloudy SW Fell 4 Inches
12 75 Cloudy S.W. 76a Cloudy SE Fell 2 Inches
13 68 Cloudy N.E. 74 Cloudy SE Fell 4 Inches
14 72 Clear N.E. 74 Clear E Fell 4 Inches
15 80 Cloudy after rain S.W. 85 Clear E Fell 3 Inches
16 82 Clear E. 86 Clear S Fell 4 Inches
17 78 Cloudy N.E. 87 Clear S Fell none
18 83 Clear S.W. 87 Clear SE Fell 3 Inches
19 82 Clear S.W. 86 Clear S Fell 8 Inches
20 83 Clear S. 86 Clear S Fell 4 Inches
21 80 Cloudy W. 88 Cloudy SW Fell 2 Inches
22 85 Clear S. 82 Clear SW Fell none
23 80 Clear E. 86 Clear SE On a stand
24 80 Clear S.E. 87 Clear SW Fell 4 Inches
25 70 Clear S.W. 88 Clear SW Fell 2 Inches
26 67 Clear N.E. 85 Clear SW Fell 1 Inch
27 67 Cloudy N.E. 82 Clear E Fell 2 Inches
28 80 Clear E. 82 Cloudy rain SW Fell 4 Inches
29 73 Cloudy E. 79 Clear W Fell 1 Inch
30 81 Clear S.E 78 Cloudy W Fell 4 Inches

REMARKS

1 Steam Boat "Marietta" departed for Louisville
2 Express departed for White River
3 Showers of rain this Evening from the West
5 Steam Boats Ploughboy & Indiana arrived from Louisville 6 Great quantity of drift running this morning. Liberator depd for Orleans 7 Steam boat Sciota arrivd from St. Peters. Ploughboy deprd for Louisville
8 Sciota depd for Louisville. Genl Brown arrivd from Orleans. Indiana departed.

10 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

9 13 Shawnese arrived 10 cool morng
11 Steam Boat Lawrence arrived from Louisville cool night
12 Very cool night Wind N. & E
13 Cool do do Steam boat Lawrence departed for Louisville
14 Cool night. Eclipse arrivd from St. Peters
15 Nights cool. winds from N. E.
16 Nights very cool winds from N. E.
17 Steam Boat "Eclipse" depard for St Peters
18 Genl Brown departed for N Orleans
21 Tolerably high winds this morning. Shawnese departed.
22 Missourie arrived from Arkansas
22 Steam boat Pittsburgh from Louisville. left same day Mrs Lewis & 7 other Shawnie Indians arrvd [26] 25 Steam boats Helen McGregor & Plough boy from Orl. & Louisville
26 nights very cool particularly towards day light. Plough boy departed
27 This morning, early, very cool. high winds S. B. Mechanic, Louisv[ille]
28 very hard rain this Evening with severe claps of thunder. Helen McGregor depar'd. Orleans
29 high wind. Mechanic departed for Louisville 30 Emigrating Kickapoos arrived from the East of the Mississippi
30 Cool nights

July, 1826

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day Tempera-
ture
at 8 Oclock
Weather
at 8 Oclock
Winds Tempera-
ture at 4 Oclock
Weather
at 4 Ocl.
Winds Rise & fall of River
1 78 Cloudy S.E. 80 Clear S Fell 4 Inches
2 80 Clear S.E. 82 Cloudy SW Fell 1 Inche
3 78 Cloudy S.W. 80 Rain Cloudy SW Fell 1 Inch
4 71 Rain W. 77 Rain W Rising slow
5 79 Clear S.E. 82 Clear SW Rose 3 Inches
6 80 Clear S.E. 82 Clear SE Rose 4 Inches
7 81 Clear S 82 Cloudy SW Rose 8 Inches
8 78 Cloudy rain E 82 Cloudy W Fell? 4 Inch
9 78 Clear E 85 Clear SW Falling
10 79 Cloudy E 84 Cloudy SW Falling

WILLIAM CLARKE'S DIARY 11

Day Tempera-
ture
at 8 Oclock
Weather
at 8 Oclock
Winds Tempera-
ture at 4 Oclock
Weather
at 4 Ocl.
Winds Rise & fall of River
11 74 Cloudy S.W. 80 Cloudy SW Fell 4 Inches
12 75 Cloudy S.W. 76a Cloudy SE Fell 2 Inches
13 68 Cloudy N.E. 74 Cloudy SE Fell 4 Inches
14 72 Clear N.E. 74 Clear E Fell 4 Inches
15 80 Cloudy after rain S.W. 85 Clear E Fell 3 Inches
16 82 Clear E. 86 Clear S Fell 4 Inches
17 78 Cloudy N.E. 87 Clear S Fell none
18 83 Clear S.W. 87 Clear SE Fell 3 Inches
19 82 Clear S.W. 86 Clear S Fell 8 Inches
20 83 Clear S. 86 Clear S Fell 4 Inches
21 80 Cloudy W. 88 Cloudy SW Fell 2 Inches
22 85 Clear S. 82 Clear SW Fell none
23 80 Clear E. 86 Clear SE On a stand
24 80 Clear S.E. 87 Clear SW Fell 4 Inches
25 70 Clear S.W. 88 Clear SW Fell 2 Inches
26 67 Clear N.E. 85 Clear SW Fell 1 Inch
27 67 Cloudy N.E. 82 Clear E Fell 2 Inches
28 80 Clear E. 82 Cloudy rain SW Fell 4 Inches
29 73 Cloudy E. 79 Clear W Fell 1 Inch
30 81 Clear S.E 78 Cloudy W Fell 4 Inches

REMARKS

1 very cool nights wind from N. E. Steam boat Liberator from Orleans, in 10 days
2 Steam boat Lawrence from Louisville
3 Steam Boat "Eclipse" from Lake Pepin.
4 Steam boat Lawrence departed for Louisville Rainy Thunder & lightning
6 Steam Boat Liberator departed for N Orleans.
8 Steam boat Pittsburg arri [ve] d from Louisville
9 (ploug[h] boy from Louisville) "Genl Hamilton" from Louisville
10 "Genl Hamilton" & Plough boy departd for Louisvil[l]e
11 Steam boat "Virginia" [28] arrived from Louisville
12 Steam boat Virginia departed
13 Steam boat Magnet from Louisville Col Lewis & party passengers [29] Col Lewis & 8 Shawnese arrived
14 *Steam Boat Magnet departed. very Cool *Alexanders Writing day before his death.
16 Col Alexander departed (for the world of Spirits) [30]

12 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

20 Steam boats Brown, Lawrence," Muskinghum & Decatur 31 arrived
21 Lawrence departed
22 Muskinghum for Fever river, Decatur for Orleans. 90 Shawnes arrivd on business relative to their Lands 140 Socks arrived on business concerning the contemplated War between the Osages and Delawares, (I believe)
23 Nights cold.
24 Last night & this morning cold.
25 nights & mornings cold.
26 Last night cool Winds from the N. Socs left this [day] for their nation
27 "Eclipse" depard for Orleans. Cool Nights
29 Steam Boat Muskingum arrivd from Lower Rapids
31 Light showers this morning early.

August, 1826

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day Tempera-
ture
at 8 Oclock
Weather
at 8 Oclock
Winds Tempera-
ture at 4 Oclock
Weather
at 4 Ocl.
Winds Rise & fall of River
1 75 Clear SW 85 clear SE on a stand
2d 75 cloudy E 79 cloudy SW rose 7 Inches
3rd 77 cloudy SE 78 do W rose 7 Inches
4 74 Cloudy SW 77 Clear W rose 9 Inches
5 72 Rain W 78 Cloudy W rose 8 Inches
6 74 Clear SW 79 Clear SW falling
7 67 Clear   85 clear SE on a stand
8 65 Clear   79 Clear SW fell 10 Inches
9 67 Clear SW 79 Clear SW fell 7 Inches
10 68 Clear SE 82 Clear SE falling
11 69 Clear SW 84 Clear SW falling
12 78 Cloudy SW 85 Clear   falling
13 84 Clear SE 87 Clear SE falling
14 84 Clear SE 89 Clear SW do
15 84 Clear SW 88 Cloudy SE falling
16 89 Clear S 88 Clear SE falling
17 80 Clear SW 87 Clear SE do
18 76 Clear SE 86 Rain SW do
19 75 Cloudy SW 86 Clear SE do
20 74 Clear NE 84 Clear SE do
21 72 Clear NE 83 Cloudy SW falling
22 70 Cloudy NE 84 do do falling
23 74 Clear NW 86 Clear do do
24 78 Cloudy SW 86 Clear do falling
25 78 do SE 82 do SE do
26 80 Clear SE 82 rain SW rising a little
27 70 cloudy NE 80 clear W do
28 68 Clear NE 81   W do
29 74 Clear E 83   SW do
30 71 Clear E 82   SW do
31 69 Clear E 84   SE do

WILLIAM CLARK'S DIARY 13

REMARKS

2 Steam Boat Dolphin arrived "erroneous"
6 Steam Boats Liberator & huntress [32] arrived
7 Nights & mornings cool Col Lewis & party departed.
8 do Liberator departed 90 Shawnese departed.
9 do
16 At 12 Oclock the Thermometer stood @ 92
17 Steam Boat Decatur arrivd.
20 Last night a material change in weather (much cooler)
29 The Kickapoo Prophet [33] & his followers arrived

September, 1826

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1

78 fair SE 83   SE

on a Stand.

2

76 Cloudy W 80   SW

falling a little

3

77 Cloudy SW 82 Clear SE

do "

4 78 Clear SE 82 Clear SE do "
6 70 Clear NW 84 Clear SE do "
7 68 Clear SE 83 Clear SW do "
8 76 Clear SW   Clear   do "
9 75 clear SW   do   do "
10 74 clear SW   do   do "
11 78 Clear SW   do   do "
12 76 Clear SW 74 Rain SE do "
13 74 Cloudy &R S 74 rain W do "
14 76 Cloudy R W 74 rain SW do "
15 72 Cloudy R NW 68 Cloudy NE do do
16 72 Cloudy NW 62 Cloudy E do do
17 72 do     do   rising
18   do     "   raised
1/2 foot
19 61 Clear N   " W do 1 1/2 "
20 64

do

NE   "   do 1 foot
21 66

Clear

S   "   do 6 In
22 70

Cloudy

S 70 Cloudy S do 3 "
23 62

Clear

NE 68 Clear SW fall
2 Inches
24 61

Clear

NE 66 Clear E fall
9 inches
25 62

Cloudy & fog

N   do   fall
10 inch
26 61

do

NE 64 do W falling 8
27 78

Clear

NE 54 Clear & cold NW falling 6
29 54

do

S 65 do S

falling

30 60

do

S 67 do SE

Rising some

14 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

REMARKS

3 Winds very high Huntress departed for Orleans.
10 Shawonee Chief and 7 men arrived others Depart
11 Potawatomy Chief Sanachwan 34 & 7 men arrive
12 Cap [tain] Ruland arrives 35 Wind high from W & Hard rain Piankashaws 5 arrive
13 Rain or mist last night & today until [?]
15 13 Kickapoos & 2 Shawenes arrive
16 4 Shawones & 3 Delewares arrive
19 8 Delawares arrive from Illinois
20 80 Osages arrive with their Agent to Council
21 5 Peorias & 5 Piankashaws arrive
22 "Miami" a Steam Boat arrived from Col. Croghan [36] & Sanford [37] set out 3 Kickapoos arrive from Illinois
23 [Miami] departed for Kaskaskias arrd Light winds from S. W. The Kaskaskias arrive The whole remnant of that great Nation consists at this time of 31 Soles-15 men mixed, 10 women, 6 children
24 Steam Boat Brown departs for New Orleans
25 35 Delawars arrive with Chief Anderson hd[?] Comme [?] & Swanox [?] [38] 26 6 Indians arrive from the Eastward
27 Delawars arrive had a talk in Council house
28 Indian Council Commences

WILLIAM CLARKE'S DIARY 15

29 3 potowatomies & 4 Kickapoos arrive Steam boat arrives 30 20 Shawones arrive

October, 1826

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1

70 Cloudy SW 75 Clear SW

Rose about 2 1/2 feet and continues to Rise.

2

66 Clear S   Clear  

rose about 1 1/2 [feet]

3

  "     "  

" 0.6"

4   "     "   "
6   "     "   falling a little
7   "     "    
8   "     "    
9   "     "    
10   "     "    
11   "     "    
12   "     "    
13 66 " SW 72 Cloudy SW falling a little
14 68 Rain S       do "
15 67 Clear S 70 Clear SW  
16   Clear SW   " SW  

REMARKS

1 Steam Boat Liberator Depart[ed] for New Orleans Several pasingers
2 councili[n]g
3      do
4      do
5      do
6      do
7 Concluded the Indian Treaty of friendship between them [39]
11 Virginia Steam Boat arrived from Louisville
13 comence raining after night The Delawar[es], Shawones Kickapoos Weeaus Piankashaws set out on their return home from the Council
14 Rained moderately all last night Some of the Scattering Tribes set out The 93 Osages Set out
15 Indians of several tribes Set out [continued on page 17]

[Page 16]

Sketch of United States Indian Department Property in St. Louis,

1829

Reproduced opposite are the grounds of the superintendency of Indian affairs, St. Louis, as shown by William Clark in a sketch* sent to Thomas L. McKenney of the Indian Department, With a letter dated July 18, 1829.#134; In the letter he stated: ". . . the house on the Main Street, Was first built for an Office and Council house, Was burned down, and rebuilt, Rooms 4 and 5, for visiting Indians, 6, 8, 9 and 10, for public Stores and factory Cellers. Two of those Rooms have been lately used as an Armory for repairs of Indian guns and Black Smith Shops for Indian work: this Row of building much out of repair, and found to be too damp for the Armorer and Smith to work in. I therefore caused to be built a 2nd. Story of Stone over Room No. 6, for the Armory, and a house joining it No. 7, for the Smith Shops, and the other part of the houses repaired, the cost of which I calculated upon paying each out of the Rents of those Rooms, in addition to the Rent of the 3 Rooms on Main Street. . . :'

Clark listed his "References" to the numbers on the sketch as follows:

"Room N 1. A Saddlers Shop rents @ $10 Per Month. " " 2. " Barbers do $6 " " " 3. " Hatters do " $10 " " " 4. " Turners do " $3 " 5. " Coal house, for Smithy. 6. " Armourers Shop. 7. " Smiths Shop. 8 & under part of 6. Shoemakers Shops $5 each Per Month. 9 & 10. rented to a Musian [?] who Keeps a Grocery (rents @ $12 Per Month."

Main street is the present First street. "Front," the Front street of today, was also called Water street in the period of the diary. William Clark's lot was not a part of the government's property. The location of his residence and other buildings on these grounds is not shown, unfortunately. The superintendency offices, including the Indian council room and a large museum of Indian relics, were on Clark's lot.

* Reproduced from the original manuscript in the National Archives (Records of the Office of Indian Affairs, "Letters Received," enclosure of letter of July 18, 1829, from William Clark). † Letter copy in superintendency of Indian affairs, St. Louis, "Records," v. 4, pp. 19, 20.

(16)

WILLIAM CLARK'S DIARY 17

16 Gen Clark Set out to Chacktaws & Chickasews 40 accompd by Col. O Fallon [41]

The "Diary" entries up to this date, and subsequently, were made by several persons, including William Clark, but for the period of Clark's absence on the mission in Mississippi (October 16-December 14, 1826) the ruled pages with dates and headings prepared, are otherwise blank. These empty sections have been omitted.

December, 1826

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

25 42 a Cloudy W 46 a Cloudy W Snows a little
26 32 Snow West 25 Cloudy N.W. Blustering--a little Snow
27 22 Clear West 28 Clear W Cold  Ice run in the river
28 23 Cloudy NW 33 " W " Ice increase
29 24 do N W 22 " N W "             do
30 28 Snow Cloudy W 24 " W               do Snow
31 24 Clear N W 10 " N.W. "             do

REMARKS

14 Genl Clark returned from State of Mississippi. [20] S. Boat Magnet arrives today
21 do
24 2 Cherokees arrive Mr. Rogers [42] &
26 S. B. departed.
31 Ferdinand Risque [43] arrives

18 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

January, 1827

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1 18 Clear Calm 20 Cloudy N.E. fallen about a foot last night last night of the 1st
2 18 Cloudy S E 38 Clear North fallen  Some Ice running
3 36 " S.W. 26 Cloudy North    "         "            "
4 29 " SW.ly 33 clear N Stand    "            "
5 30 Clear N 38 " Calm    "         "            "
6 30 Clear Calm 44 " " Rising a little      "
7 31 Clear " 47 " "    "      "          "
8 39 " " 55 " "                       "
9 48 " " 59 Clear "                       "
10 51 " " 62 Cloudy "                        '
11 34 Cloudy snows. S.W. 58 Snow  do " Snow all day & part of the night
12 36 Cloudy & snows. NW       fall a little
no ice running this Morning  Snow 12 inches Deep
13 39 Cloudy N.W. 56 Clear S  
14 34 Clear W 59 " S.W. River clear of ice
15 25 Cloudy N. 21 " West Ice running.
16 12 " West 12 Cloudy & snow West       "
17 10 Snows S.W 15 Clear North Ice running thick
18 18 Clear West 18 " West River rise about 3 feet and Closed last night
19 26 " Calm 16 " " River rise a little
20 14 Cloudy East 18 Cloudy S.W. Snowed in the evening
21 29 Cloudy S E 22 Clear S E  
22 35 Clear S 45 " S.W.  
23 54 " S. 48 Cloudy Calm river rise a little
24 48 " Calm 47 Clear "    do      do
25 42 Cloudy " 48 " "    do      do
26 40 " "          do      do about 14 Inches
27 39 Clear SE 42 Clear S    do      do River begins to Break
rose Several Inches
28 37 Cloudy NE 40 Cloudy NE River Broke & Ice move[s] down & Lodges on the Island
29 38 1/2 Cloudy "       River Clear of running Ice with much on the Shores & Islands
30 40 Cloudy         rises some
31 37 Clear S.W       River rose several inches

WILLIAM CLARKE'S DIARY 19

February, 1827

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1 36 1/2 Cloudy NE 40 Clear Calm River closed (opposite
the Big-Mound North
of St. Louis
rises a little
2 45 rain Calm 43 rain SE River running with
Ice do
3 45 Snow NW 26 1/2 ---- ---- do "     "   do
4 44 do   42 fine rain ----   do  " "
5 40 Cloudy NE ---- ---- ----   do  " "
6 41 Clear Calm ---- Clear ----   do  "  "
7 37 do SW ---- Clear Calm River clear, rises a little
8 48 do Calm ---- Clear Calm Ice commenced running
last night
9 49 Cloudy " 42 ---- SE River running with
ice--rained
some last night
--(at 4 p m.)
--river clear
of ice
& rising
10 57 1/2 Clear NW 47 Clear W River clear of ice
& rises fast
11 52 Clear W. hard 45 do NE do      do    "  Rose into the Spring
12 32 Clear NE 58 do SW do      do    " falls one foot
13 54 Cloudy SW       do      do             do
14 40 Clear Calm 46 1/2 Cloudy ---- do      do    "
15 62 " SE 55 Clear ---- do      do falls fast
16 62 " " 61 1/2 " SW do      do  do   do
17 62 1/2 " Calm 65 " Calm do      do  do  do
18 " " " " " " do      do  do  do
19 58 1/2 " " 54 " " (River falls)
20 55 " SE 62 " " River falls a little
21 65 " S. hard " rain SW do          "
22 53 1/2 Cloudy Calm 60 Clear Calm do          "
23 61 Clear " 68 rain " do          "
24 71 " hard S.W. by S 72 1/2 Clear hard SW by S River rise[s] a little
25 46 Cloudy NW 50 Cloudy NW ditto--about 2 feet (at 4 p m) -- river rising fast
               
26 42 " NE 54 Clear NE ditto about 2 1/2 feet
27 63 Clear SW 72 1/2 Cloudy SW do            1/2 foot
28 34 Cloudy SW 38 do W fall about 9 Ins.

REMARKS

3 Hailed all last night wind high from W at 4 p m wind not so high
4 Some Snow this morning and rain in the evening 5 some lee rained last night
6 some ice-Snow melting
10 Wind high Kickapoo "profit" speak[s] [46]
11 N. Ball [7] at camp. Horse Boat Sinks today 12 Steem boat

Plough Boy arrives from Kaskaskia at Day
13 " " departed for Louisville (Dance)
17 a beautiful day

20 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

18 On this day George R. Clark [47] son of Genl Clark when Hunting with Henry (a yellow fellow)-by accident was wounded under the right eye-by the discharge of Henry's gun 3 miles out
19 George thought better
20 Steam Boat Cleopatra arrives from Louisville in 5 days 21 George Better S B "Genl Hamilton" arrives
22 Steam Boat Cleopatra started for Louisville.
23 Steam Boat Muskingum & Genl Hamilton arrive from New Orleans
24 Thundered. Lightened & Rained all Last night. Steam boat Hamilton start[s] to N. O.
25 Steam Boat Muskingum starts for N. O.
26 Steam Boat "America" arrive[s] from Pittsburgh [48] (George better)
27 (rains a little)
28 (Cold) Dohertys apt [49] arrives< /p>

March, 1827

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1 36 1/2 Clear N 46 Clear ---- river falls 6 inches
2 52 " Calm 46 Cloudy S.E. "         "         "
3 44 " SW 55 Clear SW "          "   4 inches
4 60 Clear Calm       "          "
5 56 1/2 Cloudy S W       "  rise
6 66 Clear S W       "  rises a little
7 ---- Clear ---- ---- Clear   "  falling
8 55 1/2 " " 75 " (high wind S.E.) "      "    fast
9 40 1/2 " (calm) 52 " S.W.   "     "      "
10 66 " Calm 62 " "   "     "      "
11 54 " S W         "     "      "
12 64 " Calm 46 Clear S W hard unusally   "     "      "
13 50 " " 46 " N   "     "      "
14 41 Cloudy N W 44 " N very high wind  
15 56 Clear S W 49 " S W river rises a little
16 55 1/2 " " 48 " "  "   on a stand
17 46 rains E 49 rain E River falls a little
18 38 Snow N.NE 42 Cloudy N E     "   rise a little
19 45 1/2 Clear E 53 1/2 Clear S     "     "     "
20 48 Clear Calm 69 " Calm     "     "     "
21 72 " S " " "     "     "     "

WILLIAM CLARKE'S DIARY 21

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

22 76 " S 74 1/2 " " "      "      "
23 69 " S W 55 1/2     "      "      "
24 64 " S W 62 1/2 " S W high wind "      "      "
25 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- Warm Day "      "      "
26 66 Cloudy W 62 rain ---- "      "      "
27 41 " S W 37 1/2 Snow N high wind & cold.  
28 40 " N 48 Clear W river rise a little
29 56 clear W 56 " " "      "      "
30 66 " S W 64 " S W "      "      "
31 64 " Calm 64 " S W  

1 Snow fell last night 4 inches S. B. Plough boy arrives from Louis[ville] S B America departs for N. O.
2 S. B. Indiana arrives from N. O. 4 (George considerably better) 5 S. B. Indiana starts for St Genevieve
6 (at 11 A. M. rain & Hail for one hour-wind high)
7 S. B. Indiana arrives from St Genevieve
8 (rained a little last night S B. Indiana start[s] for Fever River [50] Cleopatra arrives from Louisville
10 S B Cleopatra starts for Louisville
11 S. B. Scioto arrived from Cincinnatti Last night
12 (Rain [ed] some last night) (at 1 oclock p. m. high wind S. W. at 12 oclock wind from N. W. high) S. B. Shamrock arrives from Louis [ville]
13 S. B. Scioto departs
14 (Some snow fell last night) wind high
15 S. B. Plough-boy arrives from Louisville froze Col o Fallon mard [51] Washington (Bullet Shot)
16 S. B. Plough Boy departs S. B. Liberator departs
17 S. B. Velocipede arrives from Pittsburgh. S. B. Liberator departs The Velocipede arrives from Pittsburgh
18 cold day Some Indians arrive (S. B. start for Fever river)
22 warm weather.
23 S B Clopatra arrives from Louisville S. B. Indiana from rapids below fever river (party)
24 S B Clopatra departs for Louisville

22 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

25 S Bts. America & Hamilton arive from N. O. & S. B. Mexico from Louisville
26 S B Indiana starts for Fever river
27 (Wind changeable at 4 p. m.) S B Mexico starts
29 S B. America departs for N. O.
30 S. B. Plough Boy arrives from Louisville
31 S B. Plough boy starts for Louisville (Mr & Miss Risque [52] start)

April, 1827

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1 ---- Clear ---- ---- Clear ---- warm day -- River rising
2 64 " S W 66 " S.W.    "       "         "         "
3 64 " " ---- rain S E    "       "         "         "
4 75 " " 74 cloudy      "       "         "         "
5 56 Cloudy W 70 ---- Warm rain last night River rises fast
6 64 Clear SW 60 Clear ---- River rises fast
7 74 " Calm       River raising fast
8 68 " S 74 Cloudy S E    do      do      do
9 73 " S W 75 Clear S W      "         "        "
10 81 " S W            "         "        "
11 59 1/2 Cloudy W     rain      "         "        "
12 51 1/2 " S  E     (wind high)      "         "        "
13 70 Clear W 78 " SW      "         "        " (good friday)
14 82 " S 75 " "      "         "        "
15              
16 73 " " 62 " " river on a stand
17 68 " S.E 68 "      "      "       "
18 58 Cloudy " 63 " " river rising
19 68 " S W          "      "
20 80 Clear warm ---- rain S  
21 66 " S.W 70 Clear S E river on a stand
22 59 " N E          "      "       "
23 67 Cloudy S W 57 Cloudy   rain last night
24 81 " S E   Clear    
25 69 Clear S W   Cloudy ----  
26 61 Cloudy " 65 Clear ---- rain this morning
27 68 rain S E 62 rain S E river raising
28 66 Clear " 64 Clear S W river raising
29 60 Clear N       River rises fast
30 75 Clear S W           "       "      "

REMARKS

1 2 Kickapoos start for the village of the Prophet 2 5 Kickapoos start for White river & 5 for the village of Prophet Mr. Sanford starts [53]
3 S B Lawrence arrives from Louisville

31    72        "          S      "         "           "      "     "      "
Inches

REMARKS

21 Capt. Patrick Ford [44] S[ub]. agent for the Ioways died last night at Dr. [Taffens?]
31 Military Ball [45]

WILLIAM CLARK'S DIARY 23

5 at 5 p. m. Wind high. S W. S. B. Lawrence starts for Louisville
6 arrivals from upper Missi[ssi]ppi
7 Mr. Henry Gratiot [54]> & others arrive from Fever River
8 Steam Boat Muskingum arrives in 3½ days from. Louisville S. B. Cleopatra from Louisville
9 S Boats Plough boy & Mechanic from Louisville & New Orleans 10 S B. " " [I.e., Ploughboy] started at 8 last night for Louisville S B Liberator arrives from N. O.
11 S. B. Cleopatra started yesterday for Louisville S. B. Muskingum starts for [omission]
12 some ice running in river. 48 Sacs start.
13 S B Mexico from Louisville & S B Mechanic start for Fever [River]
14 Saturday before Easter
15 Arrived S. Bts Oregon [55] - Lexington from Louisville & S. B. Jubilee from N. O. Indiana from Fever river
16 " " Shamrock from Fever river-depart S. Bts Liberator for N. O. & Mexico for St. Peters
17 " " (yesterday) Pilot [56] from Louisville--Started 4 keels up the Missouri river loaded With soldiers [57]
18 (Shawnees) arrive from Kaskaskias S. B. Indiana starts up for fever river-S B Oregon starts for Franklin
19 S. B. Shamrock starts up for fever river
21 S B Plough boy arrives from Louisville
22 " " Hercules arrives. S B Ploughboy starts for Louisville--Capt Ruland starts-S. B. Clapatria arrives
23 rain this day at 12-S. B. Mechanic [58] arrives from fever river

24 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

24 S Bt. Cleopatra & Jubilee start for Louisville-S B Hamilton arrives from Fever river S B America arrives
25 S Bt. Hamilton starts for N. Orleans.
26 S Bts Muskingum from Fever river & Mexico arrive from the rapids
27 S B America arrives
28 S. B. America starts
29 4 Iraquas arrive from Rocky Mountains (at 6 p. m.) [59] 10 Osages arrive (bro't in from country where they were secreted), who Mr. Renard-Mr. Delanney & co. were about to take to Europe, without the knowledge or consent of Supt. or Agt.-Mr. Renard declares he had nothing to do with the above affair but says Mr. Menard is concerned-M L & F S Tessons & Paul Louise are concerned [60]

May, 1827

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1 68 Clear SW ---- Cloudy ---- river raising fast
2 72 " E ---- ---- ----    "        "        "
3 60 " Calm ---- Clear Calm    "        "        "
4 75 " " ---- ---- ----    "        "        "
5 -- " E ---- Clear NE  
6 56 " W 58 Cloudy NW  
7 57 " S 62 Clear W river falling
8 62 " ---- ---- " " river on a stand
9   " ---- ---- rain S E  
10 68 rain E   cloudy    
11 68 " S W 72 Clear S W  
12 70 clear calm       river fall
13 ---- cloudy S.SE ---- rain ----    do  falling a little
14 68 " S W       river fall
15 72 " S   clear      do  fall a little
16 64 rain ----        
17 69 Clear calm        

WILLIAM CLARKE'S DIARY 25

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

18 72 " " 84 " calm warm weather
19 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- "            "
20              
21             River rise
22 67 " " " " "  
23             River rise
24 "     " " " river raising
25       76     River rise a little
26 74 " "       river falling
27 " "   78 " N E    "        "
28 hot " " hot " " river fell 4 1/2 feet in the last three days
29 "       " ---- river fell 1 [?]
30 68 " S 78 " "     "  falling
31 73 " SW           "       "

REMARKS

1 S B Pilot arrived from Fever river last night - S B Oregon from Franklin
2 S. B. Commerce starts for Louisville - S B Oregon starts also
3 S B Shamrock arrived last night from Fever river
4 at dark in the evening Capt. Ruland arrives in the S B Ploughboy from Louisville with funds for Indn Dept - S B Shamrock starts
5 S. B. Ploughboy starts
6 S. B Mexico returned down R[iver] S. B. Cleopatra arrives from Louisville
7 S. B. Cleopatra starts for Louisville T W Bullit [61] starts
8 S. B. [omission] & Hercules arrive
9 S B Bellvidere arrives
10 " " departs S B Liberator arrives from N. O.
11 Kisho [62] & other Kickapoos (20) arrive from White river
12 30 Weas & Miamis are still camped over river
13 12 Kansas (men & women) arrive from their towns Steam Boat Phenix arrived from Louisville
14 35 Showanees arrive.
15 Steam Boat Shamrock arrived from Fever River last night
16 20 Kickapoos start - S Bts Commerce - Phoenix & Jubilee arrive - Part of the Troops arrive from Council Bluffs [63]

26 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

17 S. B. Plough-boy arrived - Jas Kennerly [64] & Jno Dougherty [65] arrived yesterday.
18 S B Plough boy departs - Mr Boilvin U. S. Indn Agt [66] Died
19 S. Bts. Hercules - Velocipede & Scioto arrive - Hugh King executed for murder of Martin Green [67]
20 S. B. Cleopatra arrives
21 Lorenzo Dow arrived the day before yesterday [68]
22 Genl Clark starts for Paducah [69] in Steam Boat Cleopatra
25 S Bts Phoenix & America arrive
26 S. B. Indiana starts for Fever river - S. B. Phoenix Starts for Louisville
27 S. B. Belvidere arrives
29 S. B. Hercules arrives Genl Clark arrives from Paducah 30 S B Lawrence arrives
31 S B America starts - S B Belvidere arrives A Shane [70] Interpreter arrives with 3 Senacas 1 Shawnee & 1 Ottoe Indian The Shawnee is one who went to view Lou[isville?]

WILLIAM CLARKE'S DIARY 27

June, 1827

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1 68 Clear NW 71 Clear SW river falling
2 67 clear NE       river on a stand
3       86 " calm very warm weather    "     falling
4 71 1/2 " calm 81 " "    " rising 3 [?] ft
5 75 " " 78 " "    "      "    1 1/2 ft
6 74 " S E " " "    "   raise 1 foot
7 78 " calm 84 " " (very warm)    "        "  4 inches
8 80 " " 84 Cloudy "    "        "       "
9 80 very warm  rain E          "        "  a little
10 66 cloudy E       River rises fast about 1 ft.
11 80 "             "       "       "         "
12 81 rain early this morning clear S E " Clear "     "       "       "    2 1/2 ft
13 82 " calm 88 rain at 7 o'c N     "       "       "    1 ft
14 78 cloudy ---- 82 clear calm (warm)     "       "       very little
15 84 clear SW           "        "      2 ft.
16 78 cloudy S 82 " "     "        "  very little  in the evening falls
17 64 clear " very little wind           " fall about 2 1/2 Inches
18   cloudy S           "         "         "   1 ft
19   clear "   cloudy N (warm)     "   Raised--from Missouri
20   cloudy             "   Raised little--from Missouri
21   Clear S W           "   raise fast--since this morning 5 ft. in height
22 62 clear N 70 clear N E raise in height 2 1/2
23 65 " N E 78 " ---- river raise  "  3 ft since yesterday morning
24 68 cloudy S        
25 69 clear N E 75 clear ----    "      falls
26 74 cloudy S 80 " S E    "       do
27 79 clear S 82 " ----    "       do
28 79 " N E 82 " N E    "       do
29 80 " E 84 " calm (very warm)    "        "
30 82 " " 84 few drops of rain      "        "

28 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

5 S Bts Muskingum & Cleopatra start - S B Liberator arrives from N. O.
6 Black Buffalo & family emigrants (5 Kickapoos) are over the river
8 Steam Boat with Col. Croghan arrives from Lemoin. Belvidere arrives on the 9th from Trinity at 3 ocl[oc]k this morning
9 Steam Boat Belvidere depd on the 10th for Louisville Steam B. Hercules from Louisville
10 S. Bt. Shamrock arrives - S. B. Indiana in port
12 S B Jubilee arrives from N. O. 6 Shawnees from Kaskaskias emigrants arrive
13 S B Shamrock departs for Louisville Arrive 10 Weas & Miamis Emigrating from the Wabash Depart the six Shawnees who came on the 12th-Arrive 3 Weas
14 S B Lawrence arrives with Col O'Fallon & George [73] Arrive Penishia & party 8 in all-Kickapoos
15 S B Plough boy arrives 2 Kickapoos arrive 13 Weas & Miamies depart
16 Capt G. H. Kennerly Sub Agt arrives [74] balance of Troops from Council Bluffs arrive 75 10 Kickapoos depart 11 Delawares Emigrating arrive
17 [?] 11 Delawares Emigrating depart
18 S. B. Plough boy arrived last night 12 Ioways arrive
21 S Bts Muskingum & Cleopatra in port Genl. Brown in Barracks
22 Very cold last night & this morning Ther[mometer] at 58° river still raising fast at 6 oclock Genl Brown arrives at St Louis [76]

WILLIAM Clark's DIARY 29

23 S B Cleopatra started yesterday.
24 S B Hercules arrives from Louisville Ohio river low 4 Delawares (Silversmith) arrive
25 at 8 p. m. S B Phoenix arrives from Louisville Capt. states Ohio river raising 80 Socks & Foxes arrive
26 10 Kickapoos arrive from Prophet 1 Delaware (Coin) arrives from Fish's Town
27 at 4 am S B America arrives from N. Orleans 4 Shawnees (Fish & 3 others arrive)
28 4 Delawares & 10 Kickapoos depart 5 Shawnees arrive 12 Ioways Departed

July, 1827

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1 82 Clear NE 84 Clear South River fall a few inches
2 81 " E 89 " E    "      "      "       "
3 78 C & R NE 87 R SW    "      "      "       "
4 80 Clear NE 88 Clear S    "      "      "       "
5 80 Clear East 77 Rainy SE River falls a little
6 81 rain all day & night " 82 rain " River rise a little
7 76 Rain S 84 Cloudy "    do   rises several feet
8 76 Cloud Calm 80 Cloudy "    do     do   Several inches
9 76 Cloudy SE       ditto     do       "          "
10 78 Clear Calm 82 Clear SE    "        "         "          "
11 81 at 10 oclock Cloudy SW 85 Cloudy "    "        "        "          "
12 82 Clear NE 86 Clear Calm river falls a little
13 78 Cloudy calm 83 clear NE very little    "    rise a little
14 76 rain NE          "       "       "
15 80 clear S 84 clear S    "       "       "
16 78 clear NE 81 do SE    "     raising
17 78 Cloudy W 83 " W River fall a little
18 76 clear NE 81 " NE    "      "       "
19 80 " SW 88 " SW    "      "       "
20 81 " " 87 " NE    "      "       "
21 79 cloudy N 81 " "    "    falls fast
22 81 clear E 88 " W    "       "     "
23 82 " " 89 "      "       "     a little
24 81 " N 90 " N W    "    Rising fast
25 81 " W 89 clear W.N.W. changes rise about 5 ft. since yesterday.
26 76 " "          "   rising
27 80 " " 81 clear      "   raising fast
28 78 " W          "   rose
29 80 " W          "  raising fast
30 82 " E 86 clear W very little    "       "       "
31 82 " " 89 1/2 " E river falling

30 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

REMARKS

1 S. B. Plough boy--S. B. Phoenix & Lawrence arrive from Louisville S. B. Genl Wayne arrives at 2 oClock a. m.-St Bt America departs for New Orleans at 11 oC[lock]
2 S B Mushingdom starts for Louisville (at 1 o'clock Thermometer at 89)
3 Ioway Indians 12 set out S B. Lawrence departs down [Lo?]
4 S. B. Indiana arrives from Demoin. S. B. Phenix depd for Louisville
5 at 28 min pass 5 oClock A. M. a Shock of Earthquake .77 S. B. William Penn & S. B. Portland [78] arrive [from] N O
6 1 St Bt arrs & the Liberator arrive from N Orleans
7 S B Hercules arrives from Louisville
8 S B. Cleopatra arrives from Louisville
9 a Great rise in the Missouri river-Mississippi rising
10 Govr Cass [79]< arrives-at 1 oclock p. m. rain S. B. Cleopatra departs
11 Steam Boat Essex [80] (Capt. Shrouds) arrives, first trip 5 days from Louisville Kty.
12 S. Boat Velocipeed departs for Louisville. S B Jubilee arrives from N. Orleans
13 hard rain & wind this morning.
14 S. B. Hamilton departs for Jefferson Barracks One Fox arrives
15 S Bts Gl Hamilton-Essex & Indiana start up Mississippi with Troops [Fox] departs One Sock boy (lame) in town
16 Troops started yesterday against Winnebagoes 580 men under Genl. Atkinson [81]
17 S B Lawrence arrives from Louisville

WILLIAM CLARK'S DIARY 31

18 18 Shawnees arrive from White river
19 S. B. Lawrence departs for Louisville 3 Socks arrive
20 S. Bt. Essex arrives from Rapids at 91/2 O'clock p. m.
21 S. Bt. Josephine arrives from Louisville 6 Shawnees arrive from Fish's Town
22 S. Bt. Essex starts for Louisville - S B Hercules arrives from Louisville
23 18 Shawnees & 3 Socks Start
24 S. B. Josephine Deps for Fever River. S B. Hamilton Deps for N Orleans 10 Shawnees arrive from White River
25 S. Bt. America arrives from N. Orleans 3 Delawares arrive
27 S Bt Oregon arrived yesterday from N. Orleans
29 S B Indiana arrives from Lower Rapids on Mississippi 31 S. Bt. Hamilton starts for N. Orleans

August, 1827

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1 84 clear E 91 clear S river falling a little; it is within 4 feet of the highest [point?] & the highest of this year
2 81 1/2 Cloudy af. Rain N.E. 84 " W very little River falls fast
3 83 clear W 89 " SW very little    "      "      "
4 86 " NW 90 " E    "      "      "
5 86 " W          "      "      "
6 83 " NE 89 " NW    "      "      little
7 78 clear & cool NE 86 warm NE  
8 79 " NW 82 " NE river on a Stand
9 81 " NE 88 cool E    "      falls a little
10 82 clear warm NW 84 rain N    "      "      "
11 82 cloudy af. Rain "          "      "      "
12 81 fair NE 85 clear NE River on a Stand
13 86 " E 88 " E    "      "      "
14 87 1/2 " NE 87 1/2 " E    "      fall.
15 88 " SW 89 cloudy S    "      on a Stand
16 84 " SE 87 at 6 cloudy thunder & lightning (N.W hard rain at night)    "      raise
17 80 " W 84 1/2 clear N very little wind river on a Stand
18 82 1/2 " SW 84 cloudy W river on a Stand
19 84 " W " rain SW high wind river falling
20 78 " W 74 C. af. R " river falling
21 68 " NW 74 " NE    "      "
22 77 " W 76 " SW river raising
23 73 " NW 74 clear      "      "
24 72 " W 80 " SW river raises
25 74 " " 82 " W    "   raises
26 73 " E " "      "      "
27 73 " NE 83 " NE    "      "
28 74 " E 82 " E    "      "
29 74 " N. E. 82 " N. E.    "      "
30 72 Rain N. E. 82 Rain N. E.  
31 72 Rain N. E. 72 Cloudy N. E.  

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

32 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

REMARKS

1 (at 5 p. m in the sun the thermometer stands at 112) 4 19 Delawares arrive from the Big Mackinaw Illinois 5 S. Bt. Essex arrives
6 S. Bt. Rover [82] departs 6&7 125 Shawnees (Emigrating from Ohio) arrive
" 188 in all 25 arrive 213 in all
4 Senecas here Col. Baley Agriculturist arrives [83]
7 Martins assemble in great numbers this morning Earthquake last night [84]
11 Lieut. Bartlett & Cadet M. L Clark set out for West point [85]

12 Edmond Clark (my Infant Son) died at 81/2 A. M. (10 mo. 3 days old) [86]
13 very warm weather
14 S. Bt. Jubilee arrives from N. Orleans - brings news that the Yellow fever had broken out
15 S Bt Josephine starts for Galena
16 S Bt Galena arrives on 14th from Galena rain Last night
17 S Bt     " starts for Galena
19 at one oclock Thermometer at 110 in the sun & at 84 with windows closed, in a room
21 very Cool last night
22 L. T Honore U. States' Interpre[te]r died (on 21st) [87] S. B. Car of Commerce arrives from N. Orleans
25 S Bt Car of Commerce [88] starts for N. O.

WILLIAM CLARK'S DIARY 33

27 S Bt Essex arrives
28 Steam Boat Essex departs for Louisville Kentucky
29 In Council with the Shawnees Nation of Indians
30 Council Continued

September, 1827

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1 72 Cloudy, Some rain & Clear N.E 77 Clear a. R   River falling
2 75 " S 80 Cloudy S    do      do (Sunday)
3 78 " SW 84 Clear S.W    "          "
4 80 " S.W. 84 " S.W.     "         "
5 82 " S.W. 84 Cloudy S.W.    "          "
6 80 " S.W. 84 Clear S.W.    "          "
7 80 " S.E 86 Clear S.W.    "          "
8 74 ' S.E. 84 Cloudy S.E.    "          "
9 74 " S.E. 82 Rain S.E    "          " (Sunday)
10 74 " S.E 80 Clear S.E.    "          "
11 68 " S.E 72 " S.E.    "          "
12 68 " S.E 76 " S.E.    "          "
13 78 " S.E 84 " S.E    "
14 74 " S.E. 84 " S.W.    "          "
15 74 " S.E. 80 Cloudy S.W.    "          "
16 74 Cloudy S.E. 80 Cloudy S.E River rising   Sunday
17 74 Clear S.E. 82 Clear S.E    "         "
18 74 Cloudy E 90 " E    '          "
19 74 " N.E 90 Cloudy E River falling
20 72 Cloudy E. 80 Clear E    "         "
21 68 " E 72 Cloudy E    "         "
22 64 Clear E 72 Clear E    "         "
23 64 " S.E 68 " S.E    "         "   Sunday
24 64 Clear S.E 68 " S.E    "         "
25 68 Clear S.E 70 Cloudy S.W River on a Stand
26 64 Cloudy W 64 Clear S.E rise a little
27 60 Clear S.E 66 " S.E    do      do
28 58 " S E 68 " S.E    do      do  Thick fog this morning.
29 62 " S E 68 " S.E River Rising
30 60 " S.E 68 " S.E                     Sunday

34 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

8 (Josephine arrives from Fever River) Party of the Shawanees sets out for the Kanzas.
9 S. B. Rover arrives from mouth Ohio, with Genl Gains on board. Liberator departs for N. O.
10 Genl Gains repairs to the Jefferson Barracks.
11 S. B. Rover leaves for mouth Ohio River
12 Genl Gains returns from Jefferson Barracks.
13 Genl Gains Still here. Indians go 6 miles on their way to Kanzas
14 S. B. Josephene starts for Priarie du Chein with Genl Gains on board [89]
15 S. Bs. Rover & Essex arrive from mouth of River.
16 Col McKinny & Judge Delillia, Judge Lecuier Lillers arrives from Green Bay [90]
17 S. B. Essex sets out for Louisville. Col Geo Croughn on board
19 Col McKenny, Count Lilliers, Judge Delillia & Mr. Kinzie go to Camp. Return S. B. Arragon [91] arrives from Orleans
23 Rover leaves for Louisville & Jubilee for Orleans
24 S. B. Crusader departs for N. Orleans With Col McKinney on board
25 Comence coal fires in office
27 Steam Boat America leaves for Orleans. 27[th] troops return from the Winabago Expedition [92]
28 S. B. Rover arrives from Louisville Kty.
30 S. B. Rover leaves for mouth River.

WILLIAM CLARKE'S DIARY 35

October, 1827

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1 68 [Clear?] S.E. 72 Clear S.E River rising
2 68 Cloudy S.E 72 Cloudy S.E    "         "
3 68 Clear SE. 78 " S.E River falling
4 70 Cloudy S.E. 76 " S.E    "         "
5 76 Cloudy S.E 78 " S.E    "         "
6 68 Clear S.E 70 " S.E    "         "
7 66 Cloudy S.E 64 Rain E                   Sunday
8 64 Rain E 64 Rain E    "    Rising
9 60 " E 62 Clear E    "         "
10 56 Clear E 60 Cloudy S.E River on a rise
11 56 " E 60 " S.E    "         "
12 56  " S.E. 56 Clear S.E    "         "
13 52 " S.E. 62 " S.E    "         "
14 52 " S.E 60 " S.E    "         "   Sunday
15 60 " S.E 66 " S.E    "         "
16 60 " S.E 64 " S.E    "         "
17 56 " S.E 66 " S.E    "         "
18 64 " S.E 70 " S.E River falling
19 66 " S.E 70 Cloudy E.    "         "
20 66 Cloudy S.E 68 Rain E  
21 60 Cloudy SE 60 Clear E                  Sunday
22 58 Cloudy S E 60 " E    "         "
23 54 Clear S E 60 " E    "         "
24 54 " S E 62 " E    "         "
25 52 " S.E 60 " E    "         "
26 50 " S.E 58 " E    "         "
27 50 " S.E 54 " E    "         "
28 48 Cloudy S.E 54 Rain E                   Sunday
29 50 " W 54 " S W River Rising
30 42 Clear S.W 54 Clear S W    "         "
31 48 " S.W 48 " S.W    "         "

36 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

16 Foggy morning S. B. Rover leaves for mouth River
17 4 Shawnee Indians (Runners) arriv'd last evening
18 S. B. Oragon arrives from Orleans.
19 S. B. Liberator leaves for Orleans
21 S. B. Oragon leaves for Orleans
24 S. B. Jubilee arrives from Orleans.
S. B. Indiana from F. River
25 9 Shawnees arrived. Note. Among those Indians now here, there are 7 Shawnees & 5 Cherokees.
28 S. Boats Jubilee & Josephene leave for Orleans
29 An exceedingly dark day followed at night by a light Snow

November, 1827

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1 48 Clear S. E 48 Clear S E. River falling
2 52 Cloudy S E 48 Cloudy S.E    "         "
3 56 " S E 64 " S.E    "         "
4 48 " S.E 54 " S.E    "             Sunday
5 60 " S.E 54 " S.E    "         "
6 60 Rain E 60 Rain S E    "     Rising
7 48 Cloudy E 60 Clear S E              "
8 52 Clear E 64 " S E  
9 58 " E 62 " E          Falling
10 58 "   60 " S.E              "
11 60 " S.E 60 " S.E                    Sunday
12 60 " S E 63 " S E  
13 52 Cloudy S.E 56 " S.E. River falling
14 48 Smoky S.E. 52      
15 50 " S.E 60 Smoky S E    "         "
16 58 Cloudy S E 58 Clear S.E    "         "
17 50 Clear E 52 " S E  
18 48 Rain E 48 Rain E                   Sunday
19 42 Cloudy S.W 40 Cloudy S W    "         "
20 40 " S.W 40 " S W    "         "
21 37 1/2 Clear S.W. 40 " S W    "         "
22   Snow S W 38 " S W    "         "
23 38 Cloudy N.E 48 Clear S.W.    "         "
24 38 " N.E 38 Cloudy S W.    "         "
25 38 Cold N E 38 " S.W                    Sunday
26 33 Clear N E 40 Clear S.W River falling
27 40 Rain N.E 40 Cloudy S.E    "         "
28 38 Clear N E 42 Clear S W    "         "
29 37 Clear N E 40 Clear S W    "         "
30 40 Clear N E 42 Clear S W    "         "
               

REMARKS

2 S. B. Plough Boy arrives from Louisville & S Louis packett from Gallena.
3 S. B. America [96] from Orleans, also Cleopatria

WILLIAM CLARK'S DIARY 37

5 Rain, accompanied with Thunder & Lightning.
7 S. B. William Penn, leaves for New Orleans.
8 S. B. General Hamilton leaves for Orleans
11 S. B. Shamrock & Velosipede from Louisville
13 S. B. Shamrock leaves for Louisville Kty. with "Mary Radford" [97] & Jas Kennerly on board S. B. Velcipede leaves for [Louisville, Kty.]
15 S. B. Essex arrives from Louisville
16 S. B. Tuscumbia arrives from Tennessee River
17 S. B. Origon arrives from Orleans about 1 at night
18 S. B. Essex leaves for Louisville
19 S. B. Plough [Boy] arrives from Louisville
20 S. B. Gallena arrives from the Rapids
21 S. B. Oragon leaves for Orleans (Osages start home)
22 S. Boats Cleopatra & Liberator arrive from Orleans
23 S. Bts. Cleopatra & Rover leaves for N. Orleans & Tuscumbia
24 S. B. Indiana arrives. Slight snow
26 S. B. Muskingum arrives from Louisville
27 A man found de[a]d in one of the back Streets this morning
30 S. B. Liberator leaves for Orleans & Muskingum for Louisville

December, 1827

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

1 42 clear & cold N.E 36 Clear N E River falling
2 46 Clear N E 48        "         "
3 48 Cloudy N E 59 1/2 Cloudy N E    "         "
4 48 Rain N E 47 Rain N E River Rising
5 48 Rain N E 48 Rain N W    "         "
6 54 Cloudy  cool N W 56 Cool N W    "         "
7 38 Cloudy N E 38 " N W    "         "
8 36 Sleet & rain N E 37 1/2 Cloudy & cold N W    "         "
9 38 Cold  rain N E 37 1/2 Cold N W    "         "   Sunday
10 34 Clear N W 36 Clear N W    "         "
11 34 " N W 40 Clear N W River falling
12 34 " N E 40 Cloudy N W    "         "
13 46 " N E 44 Cloudy N W    "         "
14 46 Cloudy calm     Calm foggy  Some mist last night & this morning
15 36 Sleet " 34 Cloudy " Snow last night
16 34 Cloudy " 34 " " River falling rapidly
17 32 Sleet " 35 1/2 " "    "         "         "
18 32 Cloudy " 32 " "  
19 32 " " 32 " " River rising
20 32 " " 36     River Rising  2 feet L[ast] night

38 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY

WEATHER AND RIVER DATA

Day

Tempera-
ture at
8 Oclock.

 

Weather
at
8 Oclock.

Winds

Tempera -
ture at
4 Oclock.

Weather
at
4 Oclock.

Winds

Rise & Fall
of the River

21 34 Cloudy & rain S.SE 34   S.E  
22 36 Cloudy   misty N.E 34 Rain N E River has risen 6 feet.
23 36      " N E 34 " Calm River still on Rise
24 36 Rain Calm 34 Rain Calm River Rising
25 46 Rain " 47 1/2 " " River falling
26 48 Foggy & mist " 54 Cloudy & mist W river Rises a little  rain al night.
27 51 Clear Calm 52 Clear N.W. River rises fast.  Rained all the last night
28 40 Cloudy N E 40 Cloudy N W. River rising fast
29 40 " N E 38 Clear      "         "       "
30 40 Cloudy N E 40 " Calm    "         "       "    Sunday
31 40 Clear & Calm   42 " " River rises      "

REMARKS

2 S. B. Shamrock arrives from Louisville
3 S. B. Velossipede arrives from Louisville
6 S. B. Shamrock leaves for Louisville. Jubilee arrives, a man drowned from the Jubilee opposite town
9 S. Boats Rover, Plough boy & Cleopatra arrive from Louisville. Col W. Lady, & Miss H. P. arrive [98]
10 S. B. Jubilee leaves for Orleans. P. Boy & Cleopatra for Louisville
11 S. B. Rover & Josephine leave for Louisville
12 Col. Boon arrives from the Kanzas agency [99]
13 S. B. Genl Hamilton arrives from N. Orleans
15 (This morning attended with Sleet & cold weather) S. B. Rover leaves for Louisville Col Boon leaves for the Kanzas Agency
16 Ice beginning to run in the River & continued freezing
17 A very rainy morning and freezing as it falls
18 S. B. Hercules from Orleans & Muskingum from Louisville arrived last night
19 S. B. Hercules leaves for Louisville Kty. G. R. Clark aboard [100]
20 This morning thick Cloudy with some mist falling all day
21 Some rain last night & this morning continues to rain.

WILLIAM CLARKS DIARY 39

22 The sun shines this morning for the first time for one week 23 A little Snow last night, this day threatens snow. 24 S. B. Plough boy arrives from Louisville 25 Cloudy weather with some Rain 26 S. B. Orragon arrives from N. Orleans 27 [Augt Sick?] 101 Wind to day with flying clouds 28 This morning threatens Snow. Wind Clouds & cold this evening 29 Still Cloudy & Cold this Evening clear. S. B. Oragon leaves for Orl [eans] 30 The morning of this day quite cold, this evening not so much so 31 Very fine weather, clear & warm to day

Notes

Louisa BARRY is in charge of the Manuscripts division of the Kansas State Historical Society.

1. The latter property Clark apparently sold to the government. In his letter of July 18, 1829, to Thomas L. McKenney, Clark described the Indian Department's grounds in St. Louis as: "Those Grounds (which] were sold by me to the Department for certain purposes and are situated between Main Street and the River.' -Superintendency of Indian affairs, St. Louis, "Records," v. 4, in Mss. division, Kansas State Historical Society.
2. William and Julia (Hancock) Clark had five children: Meriwether Lewis (born January 10, 1809; died October 28, 1881); William Preston (born October 5, 1811; died May 16, 1834) Mary Margaret (born January 1, 1814; died October 15, 1821); George Rogers Hancock (born May 6, 1816; died September 29, 1858); John Julius (born July 7, 1818; died September b, 1831). All were born at St. Louis, Mo. Julia (Hancock) Clark died June 27, 1820.-Coues, Elliott, History of the Expedition Under the Command of Lewis and Clark (New York, 1893), v. 4, genealogical table; Drumm, Stella M., "The Kennerlys of Virginia," in Missouri Historical Society Collections, St. Louis, v. 6, pp. 106, 108.
3. There were two children of this marriage: (Thomas) Jefferson Kennerly (born February 29, 1824; died January 9, 1900); Edmond (born September 9, 1826; died August 12, 18271. The second Mrs. Clark died December 28, 1831. Ibid.
4. He had personal business interests, such as the Missouri Fur Company venture. Although it was not particularly successful, other financial dealings were, and he died a fairly well-to-do man. William Clark's death occurred in St. Louis, September 1, 1838.
5. Letter, Clark to E. Herring, Indian Department dated July 16, 1832.-Superintendency of Indian affairs, St. Louis, "Records," v. 4, p. 391, loc. cit.
6. The names of all these men appear, in no particular order, on the fly-leaf of the diary.
7. Another check was made from the statement in the Missouri Republican, St. Louis, June 7, 1827, that the "St. Louis Steam Boat Register" showed the arrival of 82 boats between February 12 and June 4, 1827. The diary for this same period noted 71 arrivals.
8. Ibid., May 25, 1820. In 1830, 278 steam and 91 keel boats entered the port of St Louis.-St. Louis Beacon, January 0, 1881.
9. Letter, Calhoun to Clark, May 28, 1822.-War Department, Secretary's Office, "Letters Sent, Indian Affairs, E: 59," in National Archives, Washington, D. C. The governors of Michigan, Arkansas, and Florida territories were, by law, superintendents of Indian affairs within their respective domains.-23 Cong., 1 Sess., House Report 474 (Serial 263), p. 44.
10. The "Clark papers," more properly known as the superintendency of Indian affairs, St. Louis, "Records," is a collection of 33 volumes (as labeled), consisting for the most part of records maintained by the superintendency office. These papers represent only a small part of the vast records which must have been kept by Clark's staff. They were purchased many years ago from a second-hand book store in Lawrence, Kan.
11. It is the editor's opinion, however, that no similar record was kept prior to May, 1826, from the fact that an unnumbered page, preceding page one in the diary, is headed: April, 1826," but contains no entries; also, it will be noted, the diary does not include full weather data until mid-May, 1826.
12. The diary for 1826 and 1827 is published in this issue of the Quarterly. The remainder will appear in succeeding issues.
13. "HIGH WATERS.-The Mississippi is, at this time, considerably higher than it has been for many years. The water, in many places, is over its banks, and the low lands. for miles back, entirely inundated. The inhabitants have been compelled to leave their homes. ."-Missouri Republican, St. Louis, May 11, 1826.
14. "The Mississippi, at this place, has again subsided, and is now confined within its natural channel."-Ibid., June 1, 1826.
15. The Gen. Coffee was a new, 200-ton boat, built at Pittsburgh in 1826.-Hall, James, Notes on the Western States (Philadelphia, 1838), p. 256. She is not mentioned again in the diary until May 2, 1828, and then, as the "Coffee."
16. Fort Crawford was the military post at Prairie du Chien. See, also, Footnote 89.
17. Accounts say that Francis G. Chouteau (son of Pierre and Brigitte [Saucier] Chouteau), established a trading post for the American Fur Company in 1821, in the river bottom, opposite Randolph Bluffs (some three miles below present Kansas City, (Mo.). Francis had married Berenice Menard in 1819, and in the fall of 1821 he brought his wife and family to this place, from St. Louis, via canoes and pirogues. After the 1826 flood the post was reestablished on higher ground. -Miller, W. H., The History of Kansas City . . . (Kansas City, Mo., 18811, pp. 9, 10; The History of Jackson County, Missouri . . (Kansas City, Mo., 1881), p. 102; Billon, F. L., Annals of St. Louis in Its Territorial Days from 1802 to 1821 (St. Louis, 1888), pp. 168-170.
18. Hall, op. cit., lists no boat named Ceolo.
19. Four companies of the First regiment, under Bvt. Maj. Stephen Kearny, had spent the winter of 1825-1826 in a temporary camp called "Cantonment Barbour," eight miles below Fort Atkinson (Neb.). They started down the Missouri river on May 2, 1826, reached the old post Cantonment Bellefontaine on May 10, and made camp there in the dilapidated buildings. On July 10 they abandoned this place by War Department order and moved down the river to a site previously selected by General Atkinson, ten miles below St. Louis. The new military post was named Jefferson Barracks on October 23, 1826. Missouri Historical Society Collections, St. Louis, v. 3, pp. 198, 199.
20. St. Peters river, now the Minnesota river. The Falls of St. Anthony are on the Mississippi, at present Minneapolis.
21. The flood of 1826 was a memorable one. At St. Louis a marker was placed to indicate the high water line. But a greater flood developed in 1844 when the Mississippi rose seven feet and seven inches above the 1826 mark.-Scharf, J. T., History of Saint Louis City and County (Philadelphia, 1883), v. 1, pp. 128, 129.
22. The Coosa, 173 tons, was built at Marietta, Ohio, in 1826.-Hall, op. cit., p. 263.
23. Paul Loise, long employed as Osage interpreter, was the son of Alexis and Elizabeth (Beaugenou) Loise, of St. Louis.-Billon, F. L., Annals of St. Louis in Its Early Days under the French and Spanish Dominations (St. Louis, 1886), p. 417. He had a daughter Terese, half Osage, who was given a tract of land by the Osage treaty of June 2, 1826; For other data on Loise, see diary entry of April 29, 1827, and Footnote 60.
24. "J. B"-probably written by Jesse Benton, office clerk.
25. The Liberator ran against the rocks and partly filled with water. But, in twelve or fifteen days the boat was completely repaired.--Missouri Republican, St. Louis, June 15, 1826; diary entry of June 6, 1826. She was a new boat of 200 tons, built at Pittsburgh, Pa.-Hall, op. cit., p. 257.
26. See diary entry for July 13, 1826, and Footnote 29.
27. Ex-Presidents John Adams and Thomas Jefferson both died on July 4, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence.
28. The Virginia, built in 1826, was a 122-ton boat.-Hall, op. cit., p. 262.
29. Colonel Lewis, or Quatawapea, was chief of the Lewistown band of Shawnee Indians. He lived for many years near Waupaghconneta, Ohio. The Shawnees finally deposed him, and he emigrated with his family and n few followers to lands assigned the Shawnees in present Kansas, where he died in 1826.-McKenney, Thomas L., History of the Indian Tribes of North America . . (Philadelphia, 1868), v. 2, pp. 55-57. He was a witness to the Shawnee treaty of 1825.
30. Walter B. Alexander died at the home of his father-in-law Gen. Bernard Pratte, Sr., St. Louis, on July 15, 1826.-Billon, op. cit., p. 358. He had been employed as subagent.19 Cong., 2 Sess., House Doc. 112 (Serial 156), p. 20.
31. The Decater, built in 1826 at Brownsville, Pa., was a 113-tin boat.- Hall, op. cit., p. 254.
32. The Huntress was a new, 300-ton boat, built at New Albany, Ind.-Ibid., p. 256.
33. Kennekuk (Kennekuk, Keeanakuk, etc.) the "Kickapoo Prophet," was accepted as a chief by the remnant of his tribe who remained in Illinois following the Kickapoos' land cessions in 1819. The Kickapoos of Missouri and Illinois were finally persuaded to move to lands set aside for them above Cantonment Leavenworth, in present Kansas, in 1833. The Baptist missionary, the Rev. Isaac McCoy, wrote in 1834: "Kalukuk [Kennekuk], or, the Kickapoo Prophet, one of the Kickapoo Chiefs, is a professed preacher, of an order which he himself originated some years ago. . He teaches abstinence from the use of ardent spirits, and some other good morals. He appears to have little knowledge of the doctrines of Christianity, only as his dogmas happen to agree with them. . Polygamy is allowed. Kalukuk. the leader, has two wives. Whipping with a rod, is one article of their creed, and is submitted to as an atonement for sin. . ."-McCoy, Isaac, The Annual Register of Indian Affairs No. 1 (Shawanoe Mission, 1835), p. 30. Kennekuk came to present Kansas in May, 1833. He died of smallpox in 1852.-Custer, Milo, "Kennekuk or Keeanakuk, the Kiekapoo Prophet," in Illinois Historical Society Journal, v. 11, pp. 48-56.
34. Sanachwan, or Sena-chewin, was "chief of the united tribes of the Illinois river Indians."-23 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Doc. 512 (Serial 245), pp. 556, 558.>
35. John Ruland became Indian subagent at St. Louis on July 17, 1826. He also served as French and English interpreter.-19 Cong., 2 Sess., House Doc. 112 (Serial 156), Sig. 20; 22 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Doc. 101 (Serial 213), p. 11.
36. Col. George Croghan (1791-1849) was the son of William and Lucy (Clark) Croghan, and nephew of William Clark. He had served with distinction in the War of 1812, and had risen rapidly in rank. On December 21, 1825, he was appointed inspector general of the army. Dictionary of American Biography (New York, 1930), v. 4, p. 557.
37. John F. A. Sanford came to St. Louis from Winchester, Va. Employed as interpreter and clerk, on July 16 he was appointed Indian subagent to the Mandans on the upper Missouri.-19 Cong., 2 Sess., House Doc. 112 (Serial 156), Sig. 17, 20; office of Indian affairs, "Registers of Letters Received," v. 1, letter by Sanford of July 17, 1826. He married Emily, eldest daughter of Pierre Chouteau, Jr., at St. Louis on November 22, 1832.-St. Louis Beacon, November 29, 1832.
38. Delaware chiefs William Anderson and Captain Suwaunock ("Whiteman"); "Comme" is unidentified. Anderson was head chief of the Delawares, who had removed in 1820 from White river, Ind., to James fork of white river in Missouri. Both Anderson and Suwaunock "signed" the Delaware treaty of 1829.-23 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Doc. 512 (Serial 245), pp. 116, 117; Indiana Historical Collections, v. 24, p. 438. The Delawares moved again in 1829, to a reserve in present Kansas, and the Rev. Isaac McCoy, passing their settlement on November 21, 1830, noted in his journal meeting "Anderson, the aged principal chief .... "Journal of Isaac McCoy for the Exploring Expedition of 1830," by Lela Barnes, in Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 6, p. 370.
39. Clark wrote the Secretary of War on October 12, 1526: "Sir: I have the honor to state to you, that a deputation from the Great and Little Osage Nation met one from the Delawares, Shawanoes, Piankeshaws, Peorias, Weas, Senecas and Kickapoos, at this place [i. e., St. Louis], on the 25th day of September, and, after recommending that they should make an attempt to effect a permanent peace, without the interference of the Government, they met in Council, and, after six days warm debate and recriminations, I was forced to take my seat among them, and with much difficulty obtained their entire approbation to the Treaty. . . ."-19 Cong., 2 Sess., House Doc. 9 (Serial 1491.
40. Generals William Clark, Thomas Hinds and John Coffee were appointed commissioners to hold councils with the Chickasaws and Choctaws for the purpose of securing the Indians' relinquishment of their lands in the state of Mississippi. Clark was absent from St. Louis on this mission until December 14, 1826. The councils were entirely unsuccessful. The report of the commissioners is printed in American State Papers (Indian Affairs), v. 2, pp. 708-727.
41. Col. John O'Fallon. His brother Benjamin, an Indian agent and trader, was "Major" O'Fallon. They were Clark's nephews, being sons of Dr. James and Frances E. (Clark) O'Fallon. (Frances was William Clark's youngest sister.) Col. John O'Fallon (1791-1865), settled in St. Louis after serving in the War of 1812. He became one of St. Louis' most prominent and honored citizens. (See, also, Footnote 51.)-Billon, op. cit., pp. 273, 274.
42. "Mr. Rogers" is probably John Rogers
(half Scotsman-half Cherokee) who later became, for a time, a chief among the Western Cherokees; or, the entry may refer to James Rogers who was an interpreter for the Western Cherokees during this period.-22 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Doc. 101 (Serial 213), p. 12; 23 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Doc. 512 (Serial 245), pp. 500-503, 608, 609, 677, 694.
43. Ferdinand Risque was a nephew of William Clark's second wife Harriet (Kennerly) Radford Clark, whose sister Elizabeth had married Maj. James B. Risque. The Risque's children, Ferdinand and Harriet, are mentioned elsewhere in this diary. For family relationships see Stella M. Drumm 's "The Rennerlys of Virginia," loc. cit., v. 6, pp. 98-123. 44. Patrick Henry Ford had edited the St. Louis Enquirer in the early 1820's.-Billon, op. cit., p. 106.
45. Some 200 people were present at this gala affair, so briefly noted in the diary. One of the chief social events of the winter, it featured a supper at 1:30 a. m., and dancing until 8:30 a. m. The ball was given for the officers at newly-established Jefferson Barracks who had previously entertained St. Louis citizens with a military ball at their post on January 8. Clark's Indian council room, especially decorated, was used for this occasion.-Missouri Republican, St. Louis, January 11, February 8, 1827.
46. See Footnote 33. Kennekuk, the Kickapoo Prophet, had come to St. Louis to ask that his people be allowed to remain in Illinois. During this visit he explained to Clark the origin of his divine mission. For his speech on this occasion see James Mooney's article "Kanakuk and Minor Prophets," in Bureau of American Ethnology, 14th Annual Report, Pt. 2. pp. 692-700.
47. George Rogers Hancock Clark, ten years old at this date. was the son of William and his first wife, Julia (Hancock) Clark.-Coues, op. cit., v. 4, genealogical table.
48. The America was a new 250-ton boat, and this was her first trip. The forthcoming event had been advertised in the issues of the Missouri Republican, St. Louis.
49. Evidently this refers to the appointment of Maj. John Dougherty as Indian agent "for Upper Missouri," in place of Maj. Benjamin O'Fallon, resigned.-Ibid., February 15, 1827. Dougherty said his appointment was made in January, 1827. but that he did not receive official notice until the latter part of April.-Typed copy of Dougherty's March 9. 1832, report to the Secretary of War, in Mss. division, Kansas State Historical Society.
50. The Missouri Republican, St- Louis, March 15, 1827. carried this item: "FEVFR RIVER MINES.-The emigration this spring to the United States lead Mines on the Upper Mississippi, is immense. One steam boat (intended as a regular trader) has already left here for the above place, and three others are advertised to depart soon- We have heard it computed that the accession in diggers, and others, will amount to several thousands- The Government rents, for the present year, will consequently be very considerably increased."
51. Col. John O'Fallon married Caroline Sheetz, of Maryland, on March 15, 1827.-Scharf, op. cit., v. 1, p. 351. His first wife had died February 14, 1826.-Missouri Republican, St. Louis, February 16, 1826. See, also, Footnote 41.
52. Ferdinand and Harriet Risque. See Footnote 43.
53. John F. A. Sanford, evidently setting out for his subagency in the Mandan Indian country. (See Footnote 37.) He is not mentioned again in the diary until November, 1828.
54. Henry Gratiot (1789-1836) was a son of Charles Gratiot, a pioneer trader of St. Louis. In October, 1825, Henry, his wife Susan (Hempstead) Gratiot, and family, moved from St. Louis to a frontier home on Fevre river, Illinois. Henry and a brother, John Pierre B., subsequently established a lead smelter at Gratiot's grove. The Gratiots were friends of the Rock river Winnebagoes, and in 1831, Henry was appointed subagent for these Indians. Wisconsin Historical Collections, v. 10, pp. 235-259; 22 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Doc. 101 (Serial 213), p. 11; Billon, op. cit., pp. 173, 174.
55. The Oregon was a new boat of 225 tons, built. at Marietta, Ohio.--Hall, op. cit., p. 259.
56. The Pilot was a new boat "built entirely of locust with a low pressure engine, and runs very fast," according to an advertisement in the Missouri Republican, St. Louis, March 8, 1827.
57. "Four companies of the 3d Regt. U. S. Infantry, left Jefferson Barracks on the 17th inst. in keel boats, under the immediate command of captain W. G. Belknap, for the purpose of establishing a Military Post near the mouth of the Little Platte, on the Missouri River." Ibid., April 19, 18 27. The War Department order directed Col. Henry Leavenworth to select the site, and he had gone ahead of the above party. The site he chose was present Fort Leavenworth, designated as Cantonment Leavenworth in 1827.-Hunt, Elvid, and W. E. Lorence, History of Fort Leavenworth 1827-1937 (Fort Leavenworth, 1937), pp. 16-18; Missouri Republican, St. Louis, May 10, 1827.
58. According to Hall, op. cit., p. 258, the Mechanic (a 120-ton boat, built in 1823), was "stove" near St. Louis in 1827. This is the last diary entry about her.
59. Iroquois Indians were employed by the fur companies in the far North and Northwest, but their arrival "from Rocky Mountains," or from any direction, must have been an unusual event at St. Louis, which was far from Iroquois country.
60. Six of these Osages, four men and two women, were persuaded to go to Europe. The interesting story of their experiences has been written by Grant Foreman in his "Our Indian Ambassadors to Europe," in Missouri Historical Society Collections, v. 5, pp. 109-128. He says: "The Osage accompanied by Delauney, their interpreter Paul Loise, and François Tesson of St. Louis, as conductor of the party, descended the Mississippi to New Orleans on the Steamboat Commerce: from there they sailed on the American ship New England, and, on July 27, 1827, landed at Havre." At first they attracted great crowds in France and were widely entertained. As a commercial scheme the venture soon failed. Delauney was imprisoned for debt and the Osages wandered through Western Europe in 1828 and 1829, suffering many hardships. Funds were finally raised in France to return them to the United States and they embarked late in 1829. They arrived destitute, but, the Indian Department in Washington eventually took charge of them and arranged for their care. On June 7, 1830, William Clark wrote from St. Louis to Colonel McKenney of the Indian Department, that he had sent the Osages, except Paul Loise, to their nation.-Superintendency of Indian affairs, St. Louis, "Records," v. 4, pp. 119, 120, loc. cit. David DeLaunay, Hyacinth Renouard, the brothers Michael and Francis Tesson, and Paul Loise (see, also Footnote 23) were all French residents of St. Louis.-Billon, op. cit., pp. 258, 259, 423. The exact identity of "Mr. Menard" has not been determined.
61. T. W. Bullitt, not further identified, was possibly related to Mary Ann (Bullitt) Atkinson, wife of Gen. Henry Atkinson, senior officer at Jefferson Barracks, Mo.
62. Kish-co ("guardian to Indians"), was a "signer" of the Indian peace treaty of October 7, 1826, and the Kickapoo treaty of October 24, 1832. He was not a chief and was influential only among his own band, which had moved from Illinois to white river, Missouri. These Kickapoos removed to a reserve north of Cantonment Leavenworth in 1833.-23 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Doc. 512 (Serial 247), p. 639.
63. Part of the Fort Atkinson garrison. See, also, diary entry of June 16, 1827.
64. The Kennerly brothers, James, George H. and Augustin, are mentioned frequently in the diary. Their sister Elizabeth married Major Risque (see Footnote 43), and their sister Harriet married (1) Dr. John Radford, (2) William Clark, being his second wife. The Kennerly brothers were residents of St. Louis, or near-by Jefferson Barracks, for many years. James was sutler at Fort Atkinson (Neb.) from November, 1823, until its abandonment in the spring of 1827. Subsequently James and George were appointed sutlers at newly-established Jefferson Barracks.-Drumm, Stella M., "The Kennerlys of Virginia," loc. cit.; "Diary of James Kennerly, 1823-1826," edited by E. B. Wesley, in Missouri Historical Society Collections, v. 6, pp. 41-97.
65. Maj. John Dougherty (1791-1860) was a. native of Bardstown, Ky. From late 1823 to early 1827 he was assistant to Maj. Benjamin O'Fallon, Indian agent at the Council Bluffs. When O'Fallon resigned, Dougherty was appointed in his place as agent for the upper Missouri, but made his headquarters at the new army post Cantonment Leavenworth, instead of Council Bluffs. He had married a St. Louis girl, Mary Hertzog, in November, 1823. Dougherty report, 1832, loc. cit.; Missouri Historical Society Collections, v. 6, p. 52, editorial note; Missouri Republican, St. Louis, November 26, 1823.
66. Nicholas Boilvin had been Indian agent at Prairie du Chien since March 14, 1811. He was a Canadian, and seems to have arrived at Prairie du Chien about 1810. Accounts say he died on a keelboat coming down the Mississippi.-Wisconsin Historical Collections, v. 2, p. 150; v. 9, p. 286; v. 11, pp. 247-249; v. 19, p. 314; 23 Cong., 1 Sess., House Report 474 (Serial 263), p. 43. Boilvin's position was filled by Joseph M. Street.
67. Edwards, who has the year erroneously as 1828, said King was a soldier and Green the sergeant of his company.-Edwards, Richard, and M. Hopewell, Edwards's Great West (St. Louis, 1860), p. 339.
68. Lorenzo Dow (1777-1834), a preacher and an eccentric, made a number of evangelistic tours in the United States and in Great Britain. He has been called the inventor of campmeetings.-Dictionary of American Biography (New York, 1930), v. 5, p. 410.
69. Paducah, Ky., was laid out in 1827 by William Clark, and named for the Indian chief Paducah, buried on the river bank there. It was incorporated as a town on January 11, 1830.-Collins, R. H., History of Kentucky (Covington, Ky., 1878), v. 2, p. 594.
70. Anthony Shane, mentioned several times in the diary, was an interpreter, particularly for the Shawnee Indians west of the Mississippi.-22 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Doc. 101 (Serial 213), p. 12.
71. Jacques Mette was employed at St. Louis as an interpreter. Ibid. He is mentioned a number of times in the diary, occasionally as "Mr. Metty," or "Metty."
72. Tilton was a proprietor in the Columbia Fur Company (legal name Tilton & Company). James Kipp and Tilton had a trading post on the upper Missouri in the Mandan Indian village, from 1823-1827. -Chittenden, H. M., The American Fur Trade of the Far West (New York, 1902), v. 1, pp. 323-327.
73. Col. John O'Fallon and Clark's young son George, probably.
74. George H. Hennerly, Clark's brother-in-law (see Footnote 64) was Indian subagent for the upper Missouri in 1.826 and 1827.-Superintendency of Indian affairs, St. Louis, "Records," v. 21, loc. cit. His post was at the Council Bluffs. Early in 1828 he was appointed postmaster at Jefferson Barracks, and was also a sutler there.-Missouri Republican, St. Louis, January 31, 1828; "Diary of James Kennerly, 1823-1826;" loc. cit.
75. Fort Atkinson (Neb.) was abandoned following the establishment of Cantonment Leavenworth (see Footnote 57).-Watkins says that three keel boats and four barges started from Fort Atkinson with the garrison and equipment of the post on June 6.-Watkins, Albert, "Why Fort Atkinson Was Established," in Nebraska History and Record of Pioneer Days, v. 2, No. 3, pp. 4, 5. Clark's entry of May 16, 1827, would indicate some of the troops left the fort earlier. These troops were part of the Sixth U. S. infantry.
76. Maj. Gen. Jacob Brown was commander-in-chief of the U. S. army from June 15, 1815, to February 24, 1828.-Heitman, F. B. comp., Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army to 1903 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1903), p. 252. The Missouri Republican, St. Louis, June 28 1827 contained this item: "Major Gen. Brown, accompanied by his Aid, Lt. J. R. Vinton, of the U. S. Artillery, arrived at Jefferson Barracks on the 20th inst. in the S. B. Cleopatra. This veteran officer has been for some time engaged in a tour for the inspection of the military posts of the U. States, and is now on his return to Washington City, taking the route of the Lakes. . . On the evening . [of the 22nd] he visited St. Louis; the following day, accompanied by Brig. Gen. Atkinson, he visited the Arsenal at Belle Fontaine, . . . ' Major General Brown reviewed the troops at Jefferson Barracks, the complement of the post then being six companies of the First, six companies of the Third, and ten companies of the Sixth, U. S. infantry regiments.-Ibid.
77. "A severe shock of an Earthquake, of about a minute's duration, was felt in this city this morning, at half past 5 o'clock, accompanied by a loud, rumbling noise, resembling the passage of a wagon over a pavement."-Ibid., July 5, 1827.
78. This is the only mention in the diary of the Portland. Hall, op. cit., lists no boat of this name.
79. Lewis Cass (1782-1866) was governor of the territory of Michigan at this date; he was later (1831-18371 Secretary of War, and (1857-1860) Secretary of State. Cass brought news of a Winnebago uprising.
80. The Essex was a steamboat of the smallest class, being only 135 tons. She was built at Pittsburgh, and according to Hall "broke in two, on Gr. Chain" in 1829.-Hall, op. cit., p. 255.
81. The Missouri Republican, St. Louis, July 12, 1827, stated that Governors Clark and Cass and General Atkinson (commanding officer at Jefferson Barracks), had had a consultation concerning steps to be taken against the Winnebagoes, and ". . rumor says, that a body of Infantry, from three to five hundred, will immediately proceed up the river in a steam boat detained for that purpose. " In the July 26 issue the Republican reported that the steamboats transporting the troops were unable to proceed "higher than the First Rapids," and were to proceed in keel boats. In the August 9 issue it was stated that the Indian scare was over and the miners had returned to work at the Fever river mines. The troops under General Atkinson were then at Prairie du Chien. official records of the Winnebago uprising and subsequent events, including the treaty negotiations can be found in 20 Cong., 1 sess., House Doc. 2 (Serial 169), pp. 146-158.
82. The Rover was a new, 100-ton boat, built at Cincinnati, Ohio.-Hall, op. cit., p. 260. 83. David Bailey was agriculturist to the Osage Indians at this period.-22 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Doc. 101 (Serial 2131, p. 15. The Osage treaty of 1825 had provided for the employment of an adviser in farming. 84. The Missouri Republican, St. Louis, August 16, 1827, stated: "Several slight shocks of Earthquake have been felt here within a few days past.
85. Lt. William H. C. Bartlett, instructor at the Military academy, and Meriwether Lewis Clark (1809-1881) William Clark's oldest son, who had entered West Point in 1825. Heitman, op. cit., pp. 196, 305; Coues, op. cit., v. 4, genealogical table. 86. Edmond Clark, born at St. Louis, September 9, 1826.-Ibid. The name is "Edmund" in Coues, and other sources.
87. Louis Tesson Honore, St. Louis resident, had served as Indian interpreter in the years before his death.-American State Papers (Indian Affairs), v. 2, p. 298; Billon, op. cit., p. 422.
88. The Car of Commerce, 150 tons was built in 1827 at West Port, Ky. On May 13, 1828 (see diary for May, 1828), an explosion of her boilers caused injury or death to some sixty persons.-Hall, op. cit., p. 253.
89. "Gen. [Edmund P.] Gaines left here in the steam boat Josephine, on Thursday last, for the Upper Mississippi, for the purpose of inspecting the troops, and the [re] establishment of a military post at Prairie des Chains. We understand that Gen. Gaines expresses his entire satisfaction with the course pursued by Gen. Atkinson, in the prompt measures which he has pursued against the [Winnebago] Indians.'-Missouri Republican, St. Louis, September 20, 1827.
90. The entry is confusing. Col. Thomas L. McKenney, head of the Indian Department in Washington, mentioned his fellow-travelers, Count "DeLillier" and Judge "Lecuyer," in an article "The Winnebago War of 1827," Wisconsin Historical Collections, v. 5, p. 188. Count de Lillers, only son of the Marquis de Lillers, had arrived from France in May, 1827, on a tour of the United States, Mexico and "Columbia."-Niles Weekly Register, Baltimore, May 26, 1827, p. 216. McKenney described the young count's sudden, brief illness at St. Louis, his recovery, and the hospitality of Governor Clark and wife in his Memoirs, Official and Personal (New York, 1846), v. 1, pp. 145-149. Mr. Kinzie, mentioned on the 19th, was probably John H. Kinzie, American Fur Company employee, and agent of Indian affairs at Fort Winnebago, in 1829.
91. The Oregon, variously misspelled "Arragon," "Dragon;" "Origan," etc., in the diary.
92. "Gen. Atkinson, with the troops under his command, returned from the Upper Mississippi to Jefferson Barracks on the 27th ult. in good health."-Missouri Republican, St. Louis, October 4, 1827. Niles' Weekly Register, November 10, 1827, said the troops came down in four and one half days from Prairie du Chien (600 miles) in keel and mackinaw boats.
93. Gen. Henry Atkinson and Col. Willoughby Morgan, evidently arriving from Prairie du Chien.
94. "Mr. Louns" was evidently R. Lowndes, aid-de-camp. See 20 Cong., 1 Sess., House Doc. 2 (Serial 169), p. 150. "Majr Cerny" is, of course, Maj. Stephen Kearny. Major Kearny had, in July, supervised the relocation and reestablishment of Fort Crawford, at Prairie du Chien.
95. The Liberator brought news from New Orleans that the yellow fever "continued to rage" there; and on board the Liberator herself, on her passage from New Orleans to St. Louis, between October 2 and 15, five passengers had died: John Miller, of Clark county, NY.; Edward Sweeney, a river pilot; Fluency, of Shawneetown, Ill.; Archibald Jackson, of Paris, Ky.; and Ludlow Perry, of New Albany, Ind.-Missouri Republican, St. Louis, October 18, 1827.
96. The Missouri Republican, November 29, 1527, reported that the America, on her return journey to New Orleans had struck a snag at Plumb Point and gone down in nine feet of water. Captain Scott "in order to save the engine and cargo, consisting principally of lead, set fire to the hull. and she was consumed to the water's edge"
97. Mary Radford (1812-1900) was Clark's step-daughter. Her parents were Dr- John and Harriet (Kennerly) Radford. James Kennerly was Mary Radford's uncle.-Drumm, op. cit., pp. 108, 110.
98. It seems fairly certain that the people referred to here were Col. Abram R. Woolley, his wife Caroline L. (Preston) Woolley, and her sister Henrietta Preston. Colonel Woolley and Caroline L. Preston had been married in Louisville, Ky., September 13, 1827. Henrietta Preston, on January 20, 1829, married Lt. Albert Sidney Johnston, who later became one of the noted Confederate generals in the Civil War.
99. Daniel Morgan Boone served as farmer for the Kansas Indians in the late 1820's. The Kansas Indian treaty of 1825 had provided for an agriculturist among the tribe. He was the son of pioneer Kentuckian Daniel Boone.-Hulston, John K., "Daniel Boone's Sons in Missouri," in Missouri Historical Review, v. 41, p. 369; superintendency of Indian affairs, St. Louis, "Records," loc. cit., v. 6, pp. 187-189.
100. G. R. Clark has not been identified. He is mentioned again, entry of September 27, 1828, as departing from 6t. Louis, where he had, apparently, spent the preceding eight months.
101. Augustin Kennerly was employed as an interpreter, and also served as a clerk in Clark's office. He was Clark's brother-in-law (see Footnote 041.-22 Cong., 1 Sess, Senate Doc. 101 (Serial 213), p. 12.