1850-1940 Special Census
The U.S. government periodically has conducted special censuses to collect specific information about the American population. They include mortality schedules, slave schedules, enumerations of veterans, and censuses of American Indians living on reservations. KSHS microfilm of out-of-state special census records are available to patrons in the research room of the Center for Historical Research. Unless otherwise noted, these materials are not available through interlibrary loan. Please see our reference correspondence policy for the reference assistance we are able to provide.
Slaves were counted separately on the 1850 and 1860 federal censuses. In most cases, individual slaves were not named and can be distinguished only by age, sex, and color. The names of slave owners are listed on the schedules.
In 1890, the U.S. government conducted a special census of surviving Union veterans and widows of veterans.
The Kansas Historical Society has microfilmed copies of Indian census rolls covering the years 1885 to 1940, primarily for tribes with a Kansas connection. Microfilm is available through interlibrary loan.
The enrollment or census cards prepared by the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes (Dawes Commission) between 1898 and 1914 are very useful in researching the family history of members of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole tribes. Microfilm is available through interlibrary loan.