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American Indians in Kansas

Some articles from the Kansas Historical Quarterly are available online.


Herring, Joseph B. The Enduring Indians of Kansas: A Century and a Half of Acculturation. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1990.

Manzo, Joseph T. "Emigrant Indian Objections to Kansas Residence." Kansas History 4 (Winter 1981): 246-254.

Miner, H. Craig, and William E. Unrau. The End of Indian Kansas: A Study of Cultural Revolution, 1854-1871. Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1977.

Prucha, Francis Paul. A Bibliographical Guide to the History of Indian-White Relations in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977. A superb collection, fully indexed, listing more than 9,700 items.

__________. Indian-White Relations in the United States: A Bibliography of Works Published 1975-1980. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982. Supplement to 1977 edition, published by University of Chicago Press.

Unrau, William E. Indians of Kansas: The Euro-American Invasion and Conquest of Indian Kansas. Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1991.



Herring, Joseph B. "The Chippewa and Munsee Indians: Acculturation and Survival in Kansas, 1850s-1870." Kansas History 6 (Winter 1983/84): 212-220.


Delaware 1829-1867

Completion of the Delaware bibliography was made possible by volunteer John Liezert.

Photograph of Annie Grinter, a Delaware Indian, and her son  Cunningham, 1860sAdams, Richard C. “A Brief History Of The Delaware Indians”. U.S. 59th Cong. 1st Session. Vol. 8, no. 501. (Serial Document 4916 no. 501).

Adams, Richard C. “History of the Delaware”. (Microfilm MS 1097).  Written by a Delaware of the Alluwe territory, this article in addition to the history, describes the property holdings, including acreage, personal property, and the estimated worth of same.

Connelley, William Elsey. “The Emigrant Indian Tribes of Wyandotte County.” An address delivered before the Kansas City, Kansas High School on Tues, Nov. 12, 1901. (K/978.1/-W97/Pam v.1/no. 16/pp. 3-9).  A descriptive narrative concerning the Delaware tribes in early Kansas, as seen by European-American settlers, Washington Irving, and newspaper articles.

Connelley, William Elsey. “The Delawares”. In A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans, I:244-251.  Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1918. (K/978.1/C76/1918/Vol. 1/pp. 244-251).  A general overview of the Delawares in Kansas, but with more specifics relating to their movement to Oklahoma.

“Constitution of the Delaware Squatter Association embracing all the laws passed by the Different Squatter Meeting From June 10, to Dec. 2, 1854”. (Port. Vault/K/342.73/D376/pp. 2-8).  Descriptions of the various office holders, articles pertaining to the purpose of the Association and the rules set out to allow people to settle on the Delaware lands.

“Correspondence and papers of the Rev. Isaac McCoy, Baptist minister, Indian missionary, and author”. Isaac McCoy Papers, 1808 – 1874. (Microfilm MS 604-616).  Rev. McCoy was one of the earliest proponents of moving the eastern tribes to the west, to avoid “contamination” by the European-American man. These papers offer an excellent view into the need for the Delaware, and other tribes to have their own land and own way of life.

Cutler, William G. “The Delawares or Lenapes”. In History of the State of Kansas, 68-69.  Chicago: A. T. Andreas, 1883. (K/978.1/An 2/pp. 68-69).  An overview of the Delaware Indians history, including their movement west and many of the treaties which forced them west.

“Delaware and Shawnee Indian Tribes. Registers, Rolls, and Publications".
(Microfilm MS 1097).  Although the census was taken in 1898, after the Delaware tribe’s movement to the Oklahoma Territory, the data demonstrates the diminishing numbers of Delawares, from previous census.

DeVoe, Carrie. Legends of the Kaw, the Folk-Lore of the Indians of the Kansas River Valley. Kansas City, Missouri: Franklin Hudson Publishing Co., 1904. (K/970.8/D 49/pp. 103-126).  Interesting compilation of the Delaware folklore and how much of it, relates to English Biblical teachings, and folklore assoc. with other tribes throughout the plains.

“Diminished Delaware Reservation”. Field Notes and Correspondence Regarding Indian and Military Reservations, 1855-1861. (Microfilm MS 1046 pp. 1-52).  While difficult to read at times, an in depth way of surveying the Delaware land is noted, but a result of an increase or decrease in reservation size in not mentioned.

Farley, Alan W. The Delaware Indians In Kansas, 1829-1867. Kansas City, Kansas: 1955. (K970.3/F.229).  A concise, history of the movement of the Delaware tribes into Kansas, their battles with other tribes, and their support for the United States prior to, and after the Civil War, until their exodus from Kansas.

Forman, Grant. The Last Trek of the Indians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946. (K/970.5/F761L/pp. 182-201).  An excellent overview of the some of the difficulties the Delaware tribes had with other tribes, the various treaties and cessation of land to the European-American settlers, and includes a map of the large area for a reservation of the Delaware to the final tract of land prior to the moving to the Oklahoma nation.

Gowing, Clara. “Life Among the Delaware Indians.” Collections of the Kansas State Historical Society, 1911-1912. (SP/906/K13/v. 12/p. 183-194).  An account of one woman’s view of the Delaware, having worked in the Baptist Mission from 1859-1864. Interesting from her perception of the methods used to assimilate the Indian into the European-American man’s world.

Hall, Jesse. A. and L.T. Hand. History of Leavenworth, Kansas. Topeka, Kansas: Historical Publishing Co., 1921. (K/978.1/–L48/H14/pp. 100-103).  A description of the area around Leavenworth, Kansas giving to the Delaware Tribes by various treaties, and adaptation of the tribe to its new surroundings.

“History –Delaware Indians 1857-1861”. 1906. Apr. 14-23. (History—Delaware Indians Manuscript Collection).  A collection of records from the General Service Administration, containing correspondence between land office secretaries and Delaware agency leaders concerning land grants, letters from Pres. Lincoln to Wm. Dole, Indian Commissioner, and a letter from a Fred Woodard, stating the treaty of 1860 being unfair to the Delaware with statistical facts to support claims.

Hughes, J. Patrick. Fort Leavenworth, Gateway to the West. Newton, Kansas: Mennonite Press, 2000. (Ref./SP/906/K13/H874fl/2000/pp. 45 – 47).  A concise description of how the troops stationed at Fort Leavenworth were there to protect the Indian lands, but through government policy changes, the task was redirected to assist the pioneers moving west.

“Indian Claims Commission. Delaware Tribe.” 1955. (K/970.5/D37/no. 27A, 2-54, 3-54, no. 241).  Claims of the Delaware Tribe in a series of law suits of the Delaware Tribe vs. The United States of America, pertaining to monies owed to them from previous treaties from 1854 to 1867, with specific areas of lands, including maps, that are called in question. Various past treaties are also detailed.

“Indian and Military Reservations. Field Notes and Correspondence 1839-1883.” (Microfilm MS 1046.4).  These hand-written notes describe the exact measurements, how they were marked, and charted, pertaining to the Delaware reservations, and the names of all individuals involved in the surveying.

Jefferson County, Kansas, Register of Deeds. “Deed Records 1856-59”.
(Microfilm AR 4998 Vol. A & B).  While the Delaware Trust Lands, are mentioned numerous times, no records of verification for sale of lands, by the Bureau of Indian Affairs could be located in the registry.

Kraft, Herbert C. The Lenape, Archeology, History, and Ethnography. Newark, New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Society, 1988. (970.3/–D37/K855).  A well-researched history of the Delaware Indians, from their earliest times to their present state in 1988. An excellent bibliography is included.

"Laws of the Delaware Nations of Indians". (K970.1/Pam v. 7/no. 9).  Laws of the Delaware tribe adopted by the Chiefs and Counselors in 1862 ranging from murder, rape, horse theft to marriage of a European-American man and disposal of property.

Leavenworth County, Kansas, Register of Deeds. “U.S. Patents Record, Vol. J. 1864-1887”. (Microfilm AR 7124).  Contains deeds to the sale of the Delaware Lands by the Office of the Kanzas Land Trust. Interesting, shows the ever-diminishing Delaware lands.

"Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1881". Delaware Agency, 1855-1873 and 1858 – 1864. (Microboxes 298-299).  Sometimes difficult to read, but provides some information of settlers attempting to move onto Delaware lands, and the Delaware’s leasing many of their lands to settlers for a nominal fee. Includes the need for the Indian Affairs Office to approve all transactions. Also includes some references to special monies given to Indians who became U.S. citizens.

“Letter from the Secretary of the Interior relative to the Claim of the Delaware Indians for stock stolen from them by the whites since the treaty of 1854”. U. S 42d Congress, 2d Session. (Ex. Doc. No 169/Serial Doc. 1513/no. 169).  A letter pursuant to swift compensation for losses attained.

“Letter(s) from the Secretary of the Interior, Reports in reference to the carrying out of treaty stipulations with the Delaware Indians”. 33d Congress, 2d Session. House of Representatives. Ex. Doc. No. 50. (K/970.1/Pam. v. 10/no. 22).  Letters concerning the 1854 Treaty with the Delaware, including military failing to protect the Indians from squatters, from military officers selling lands independent of the treaty, and warnings to all squatters.

McCoy, John C. “Survey of Kansas Indian Lands”. Transactions of the Kansas State Historical Society Embracing the Fifth and Sixth Biennial Reports, 1886-1888. (SP/906/K13/v. 4/pp. 302-306).  An account of the survey of the western Delaware boundary line beginning in Sept. 6, 1830, giving an brief incite into the area surveyed and the methods of the survey. Also denotes the abundant land of wildlife.

Mooney, James. “The Passing of the Delaware Nation”. Proceedings of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association for the Year 1909-1910. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch Press, 1911. (973.06/M69/Vol. 3/1909/pp. 338-340).  Gives a census of the Delaware tribe in 1845, and the census in 1867, prior to their removal to Oklahoma.

Neibarger, Walt. Tonganoxie and The Last of the Delawares in Kansas. Tonganoxie, Kansas. (K970.3/Pam v. 2/no.1).  An historical narrative about Chief Tonganoxie and the area so named Tonganoxie, Kansas.

“Office of the Kanzas Land Trust. No. 3 Winter Street, Boston, 27th Oct. 1856.” (K/970.1/Pam v. 12/no. 26).  A statement from the Trustees appointed for the purchase of the lands of the Government in the Kansas territories, their duties and administration of same. This pamphlet also contains extracts from the 1854 Delaware Treaty, the proclamation by Pres. Pierce opening the sale, and one of the best maps of the Delaware lands.

“Petition of the Chiefs of the Delaware Indians in Kansas”. U. S. 37th Congress, 2nd Session. (Misc. Doc./no.100/Ser. Doc. 112/no. 501).  A petition that the United States that bonds issued to the tribe in 1860, have been used by other states, and no interest has been paid to the tribe for 2 years.

Pratt, J. G. (John Gill). Condition of the Indian Tribes: Report of the Joint Special Committee, Appointed Under Joint Resolution of March 3,1865. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1867. (970.5/Un3j/pp. 483-484).  Reply of John Pratt, U.S. Indian Agent, to J.R. Doolittle, Chairman Joint Special Committee outlining a list of answers to questions proposed by the chairman.

Pratt, J. G. (John Gill) Papers, 1837-1870. (Microfilm MS 628 – 639).  Manuscripts and documents, including letters, land grants, deeds, contracts, and government papers, relating to his many years as the Indian agent and friend of the Delaware Indians. See guide for specific topics.

“Registers, Rolls, and Publications of the Delaware and Shawnee Indian Tribes, 1898.” (Microfilm MS 1097).  An excellent description of Delaware census in 1898, in the Oklahoma territory, including a description of the tribe’s autonomy and their self-governing laws.

“Report of The Secretary of War, a resolution of the Senate, of Feb. 10, 1855, calling for correspondence relative to the military reservation at Fort Leavenworth”. U.S. 33rd Congress 2nd Session. (Senate Documents, Vol. 7, 1854-1855, no. 50. p. 19-32.  A written documentary between the Sec. of War, the Sec. of the Interior, and various military official at Fort Leavenworth, with respect to discernment of land to the Delaware tribe and military officers who were selling the land without authorization.

“Resolution of the Legislature of Kansas.” U. S. 41st Congress. 3d Session. (Misc. Doc. No. 77).  The passage of an act authorizing the issue of patents for the lands allotted to children of members of the Delaware Tribe.

Schindler, Henry. “The Fight Fort Leavenworth Had for Existence.” Leavenworth Weekly Times, November 24, 1910. (K355/L48/v.1/pp. 28-35).  Discusses the Manypenny treaty of 1854, the treaty of 1860, and how each was relevant to the Delaware tribes and the forming of Fort Leavenworth.

Schindler, Henry. “Manuscript of the History of Fort Leavenworth.”
(K/978.1/–L48/Sh63hf/pp. 79-131).  A well-written manuscript, by a former Chief Clerk, U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, which describes the various treaties of the Delaware Indians and the U.S. Government, the men who worked to help the Delawares, and the names of many persons who re-wrote treaties to force the Delaware farther west and eventually out of Kansas.

Schindler, Henry. “The Why of Leavenworth and Riley.” Kansas City Star, November 27, 1910. In Forts Clippings, 1:36-43  (K/355/L48/Clipp./v. 1/pp. 36-43).  Describes efforts to close Fort Leavenworth and open Fort Riley, and the effect on the Delaware Indians.

Self, Huber and Homer E. Socolofsky. Historical Atlas of Kansas. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972. (K/911/So13/pp. 13–18).  Maps of Indian reservations, 1846, Pacific Railroad Survey, 1855, Indian Missions, and Indian Treaties signed in Kansas. Offers incite as to how the Delaware tribe was moved due to westward expansion.

Treaties Between the United States and the Delaware and Pottawatomie Tribes of Indians, Acts and Amendments in regard to the Construction 0f a Railroad and Telegraph Line. St. Louis: George Knapp & Co., Printers and Binders, 1865. (K970.1/Pam. v. 3/no. 5/pp. 1-51).  Description of the lands ceded to the railroad. the amount of monies paid.

“Treaty Between The United States of America and the Delaware Tribe of Indians.” July 4, 1866. (970.1/Pam. v. 8).  The treaty, written in 1866, signifying the responsibilities of both the United States government and the Delaware Indians.

United States Department of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. St. Louis Superintendency papers, 1807-1855. (MS 94-99 and MF-3166). Also known as the “Clark Papers”.  Easy to read records of William Clark, and other superintendents of Indian Affairs, including field notes, plats of Indian lands, treaties, and records of correspondence between many agents and the U.S. government. Detailed information on roads, education, and claims among the many Indian tribes in Kansas, including the Delawares.

Unrau, William E. Indians of Kansas. Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1991. (SP/906/K13/Im1/no. 3).  Examines all Indian tribes in Kansas, from the prehistoric settings, to the expulsion of many tribes, including the Delaware. He also brings to light, why the Indian Tribes were destined to move further west. Includes maps of reservations, westward expansion trails.

"The Value Accruing From A Knowl’Eg of Local History". Kansas City Sun, June 18, 1915.  In Wyandotte County Clippings, 5:123-123e (K/978.1/-W93/Clipp./v. 5/pp. 123-123e).  A brief newspaper describing a few of the Delaware Indian Chiefs who lived in Wyandotte Township and the growth of the Township.

Weslager, C.A. (Clinton Alfred). The Delaware Indians: A History. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1972. (970.3/–D37W/pp. 359-399).  A description of the lands ceded to the Delaware Indians, the monies paid. Includes an excellent bibliography.

Zeisberger, David. Delaware Indian and English Spelling Book for the Schools of the Mission of the United Brethren with Short Historical Accounts from the Old and New Testament and other Useful Instructions for Children. Philadelphia: Mary Cist Press, 1806. (CK/970.7/Z3).  Interesting adaptation of the Delaware language into English to educate the children of the tribe to speak a new language and thus offer religious teachings.



Meyer, Roy W. "The Iowa Indians, 1836-1885." Kansas Historical Quarterly 28 (Autumn 1962): 273-300.



Abel, Annie Heloise. "Indian Reservations in Kansas and the Extinguishment of their Title, with Map." Kansas Historical Collections 8 (1904): 72-109.  Significant study completed as master's thesis at Kansas University, 1902; includes map of Indian reservations in Kansas, 1846.

Adams, F. G. (Franklin George), ed. "Reminiscences of Fredrick Chouteau." Kansas Historical Collections 8 (1904):423-434. Famous pioneer trading family, based on notes taken by Adams in 1880.

Asher, Brendon. "Artifact Analysis and Descriptive Report of the Kansa Village of Fool Chief (14SH305), Shawnee County, Kansas." (2011) Unpublished report available at the Kansas State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), Kansas Historical Society, Topeka.

Barry, Louise.  The Beginning of the West, Annals of the Kansas Gateway to the American West, 1540-1854.  Topeka, Kan.: Kansas State Historical Society, 1972.

Buffalohead, Eric. "Dhegihan History: A Peraonal Journey. In Dhegihan and Chiwere Siouans in the Plains: Historical and Archeological Perspectives." Memoir 36, Plains Anthropologist 49, no. 192 (Nov. 2004): 327-343.

Chouteau, François, Berenice Chouteau, and Dorothy Brandt Marra, with translation by Marie-Laure Dionne Pal and edited by David Boutros. Cher Oncle, Cher Papa: The Letters of Francois and Berenice Chouteau. Kansas City, Mo.: Western Historical Manuscript Collection-Kansas City, University of Missouri, 2001.

Chouteau, Frederick.  Frederick Chouteau to W.W. Cone correspondence, May 1880-Nov. 1880.   In KSHS Indian history Mss. collection and online in Kansas Memory.

Christian, Shirley.  Before Lewis and Clark: the Story of the Chouteaus, the French Dynasty that ruled America’s frontier. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004.

Cole, Fannie E. "The Kansas Indians in Shawnee County after 1855." Kansas Historical Collections 8 (1904): 481-483.

Cone, William W. "The First Kaw Indian Mission." Kansas Historical Collections 2 (1880): 276-279. Established by Methodist William Johnson in 1830.

Dorsey, James Owen. "Migration of Siouan Tribes." American Naturalist 20 (1886): 211-222.

___________. "Siouan Sociology. A Posthumous Paper." Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 15th (1897): 205-244.

Ellis, Ralph Burchard. "Half Forgotten Tales: The Story of a Fool Chief, an Incident of the Kaw Trail." Removed from Western Life, Feb. 1908. Available online in Kansas Memory.

Esry, Les. "The Blue Earth Kansa Village East of Manhattan." Journal of the Kansas Anthropological Association 6 (1985): 46-53.

Hafen LeRoy R., ed. Mountain Men and the Fur Trade of the Far West.  Glendale, Calif.: A. H. Clark Co., 1965-1972 (10 vols.)

Haucke, Frank. "The Kaw or Kansa Indians." Kansas Historical Quarterly 20 (Feb. 1952): 36-60.  An address delivered at the annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society convened at Topeka, Kansas, October 16, 1951, chiefly about the years the Kaw Indians lived on their reservation near Council Grove.  Available online in Kansas Memory.

Hoard, Robert J. and William E. Banks, eds. Kansas Archaeology. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas in association with Kansas State Historical Society, 2006.

Hodge, Frederick Webb. "Kansa." In Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Bulletin (Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology) 30: pt. 1, p. 653-657.

Houck, Louis. A History Of Missouri From The Earliest Explorations And Settlements Until The Admission Of The State Into The Union. Chicago: R. R. Donnelley & sons co., 1908.

Long, Stephen H. "The Kansas Indians." Kansas Historical Collections 2 (1880): 280-301.  Extracted from Long's "expedition from Pittsburg to the Rocky Mountains, peformed in the years 1819 and 1820."

McCoy, Isaac. History of the Baptist Indian Missions, Embracing Remarks on the Former and Present Condition of the Aboriginal Tribes; Their Settlement within the Indian Territory, and their Future Prospects.  Washington, D.C.: W. M. Morrison; New York: H. and S. Raynor; and Utica, N.Y.:Bennett, Backus and Hawley, 1840.

Marshall, James O. "Archeology at Hard Chief Village: An Introductory Study of the Kansa Indian Experience in the American West, 1806-1846." The Kansas Anthropologist 21 (2000): 57-89.

Morehouse, George P. Letter to George W. Martin, April 16, 1904. KSHS Indian History Coll. #590, Box 3 Folder Kansa and available online in Kansas Memory.  Morehouse discusses the two Fool Chiefs, father and son, of the Kaw tribe.

__________. "The Kansa or Kaw Indians and their history, and the story of Padilla." Kansas Historical Collections 10 (1908): 327-368

Smet, Pierre-Jean de. Letters and Sketches: With a Narrative of a Years Residence among the Indian Tribes of the Rocky Mountains. Philadelphia, M. Fithian, 1843.



Stull, Donald D. Kiikaapoa: The Kansas Kickapoo. Horton, Kans.: Kickapoo Tribal Press, 1984. A history of tribe through the 1970s, including tribal organization and government on northeastern Kansas reservation.

__________, Jerry A. Schultz, and Ken Cadue, Sr. "Rights Without Resources: The Rise and Fall of the Kansas Kickapoo." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 10, 2 (1986): 41-59.



Herring, Joseph B. "The Chippewa and Munsee Indians: Acculturation and Survival in Kansas, 1850s-1870." Kansas History 6 (Winter 1983/84): 212-220.



Completion of this bibliography was made possible by volunteer John Liezert.

Image of and link to a map of Eastern Kansas by E.B. Whitman and A.D. Searl, General Land Agents, Lawrence, showing Indian boundaries, 1856Adams, F.G. “The Miamis.” (History, Indians General, Miami collection).  A brief, but interesting history of the Miami Indians, from their origin in Ohio, to their immigration to Kansas. Included are a few census records showing their declining numbers.

Anson, Bert. The Miami Indians. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1970. (970.3/
-M58/An 82).  An excellent source of information relating to the History of the Miami from the great lakes (1634) to Oklahoma. (1873). Included are particularly interesting facts of the tribes legal battles, while in Kansas. Well-written bibliography.

Banks, Elliot V. Repots of Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of the State of Kansas. Leavenworth, Kansas. (SP/345.42/K13/v. 3/p. 364).  Informative argument of Miami County Commissioners vs. Wan-zop-che, et al. concerning taxation of lands held by the Miami Indians. (1865)

Beckwith, Hiram W. “Some account of the Indian Tribes formerly Inhabiting Indiana and Illinois.” (970.1/Pam/v.7/p.107-117.)  Minimal information about the Miamis in Kansas, but does offer incite into their migration west and the influence liquor had on the tribe.

Connelley. W.E. “Indian Tribes of Kansas.” In History of Kansas State and People.
: American Historical Society, Inc., 1928. (K/978.1/C76/1928/v.1/p.249).  Discusses the Miamis from their origin in Detroit, their movement to Chicago and west, to settling in the Marcis des Cygnes in Miami Kansas. Discusses size of their reservation and other aspects. Although brief, a very informative selection.

Forman, Grant. The Last Trek of the Indians. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1946.
(970.5/F761L/p. 201).  Well written description of the difficulties, the Miamis had with respect to cross cultural aspects of moving into Kansas. Also gives a census from 1846-1873. Contains an excellent bibliography.

Goode, William H. Outposts of Zion, with the Limits of Mission Life. Cincinnati: Poe and Hitchcock, 1864. (266.87/G61/ p.294).  Written after 20 yrs. of missionary work on the frontier. Offers some rudimentary description of the Miami tribe, as seen in Kansas in 1854, but offers little more incite.

Index to the Executive Documents of the House of Representatives. “Letters from the Secretary of the Interior to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.” 49th Congress.
1st Session
. (Ex. Doc. No. 23/Ser. Doc. 2392).  Letters concerning monies taken from the Miami Tribe and improperly distributed to other tribes. Miami requesting return of monies. Very interesting, but substance of letters often confusing.

Indian Census Rolls. The National Archives. National Archives and Record Service. General Service Administration. Washington. 1965. (MS 1964 and 1965).  Presents the census for many tribes, including the Miami, from 1901-1921. Although the census in primarily in Oklahoma, and for many years no census was taken on the Miami, the documents demonstrate the small size if the Miamis, compared to other tribes of that time.

“Investigation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.” House Report, 82nd Congress, 2nd Session. (Serial No. 11582/p.449).  An overview of material, laws, and treaties, affecting the Miami Indians, from 1795 to 1895. Although brief, the writing demonstrates what each treaty had to offer, and how many treaties were used for advantage of the U.S. government.

“The Last Home of the Miami.” Miami County Record, 1876. (Miami County Clippings/978.1/–M58/clip. 2/v. 2/p. 2).  Descriptive of Miami tribe in Miami County, but offers little new information. Does describe what the tribe left behind. Interesting, but no overly informative.

Leitch, Barbara. A Concise Dictionary of Indian Tribes. Michigan: Reference Publications, Inc., 1979. (970.1/L535/p. 268).  Very brief description of the Miami, including their history, social and religious aspects. Minimal reference to the tribe while in Kansas.

“List of Headrights Issued to Miami Tribe.” LaCygne Journal, Oct. 14, 1871. (Microfilm reel: L 2).  Lands given to members of the Miami tribe by previous land laws.
Interesting, but not overly informative.

Memorial of A.H. Davis and others, in relation to “The Disposal of the Miami Indian Lands in Kansas, 1871.” Index to the Misc. Documents of the Senate of the United States, 1870-1871. 41st Congress. 3rd Session. (Misc. Doc. No 56/Ser. Doc. 1442).  Interesting account of the dividing of the Miami reservation for sale to white settlers, with little attention paid to the concerns of the Indians.

“The Miscellaneous Documents of the Senate of the Unites States.” 38th Congress, 1st Session. (D.R. 1177/Doc. 130).  Petition if the Miami Indians, to be paid arrears due them, as per the Treaty of 1854. Interesting letters between Congress and the Dept. of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs from March, 1864-June 1864.

Moore, Ely. “A Buffalo Hunt with the Miamis in 1854.” (SP/906/K13/v.10/p.407).  Not only interesting with respect to the hunting techniques of the tribe, but also describes the land where the University of Kansas is now located.

Moore, Ely. “Letter, May 17, 1909.” Papers of Ely Moore, 1902 – 1914. (Misc. Doc.)  A letter describing the Miami Agency, where her father was the Indian Agent for the Government, and a place called, Beaver Creek, where oil was first discovered in Kansas. Describes how the oil was collected by the Miamis and other tribes, and the uses of same, by the various tribes. Very brief, but interesting.

Moore, Ely. “The Story of Lecompton.” Kansas Historical Collections, Vol. 11. (SP/906/K13/ p. 463-464).  In an address to an old settlers meeting in Lecompton, in 1907, the author recounts how her father, was appointed special agent to various Indian tribes, by Pres. Pierce in 1853. Also describes how the Miamis, Weas, Peorias, and several other tribes that were at continuous war, with the Pottawatomies, and Osage tribes, as well as boarder Missourians, who were poaching on Indian land.

Murray, William G. Appraisal of Miami Tract in Kansas, 1854. Ames, Iowa, 1956.
Prepared for the Dept. of Justice. (K/970.3/M.58).  A good resource, descriptive of land use, timber, acreage. Provides maps of Miami County. Offers a government perspective of what white settlers could do with Indian lands. Incite into Indian versus white culture.

Nieberding, Velma. The History of Ottawa County. Marceline, Mo.: Walsworth Pub.Co., 1983. (976.61/-Ot8/N55/p.250).  Primarily discusses the Miami tribe in Oklahoma, important information is available pertaining to the Kansas lands, treaties, and what transpired after the Miamis chose not to fight in the Civil War. Very interesting and pertinent.

Roubideaux, John. “Miami Reserve Matters.” (K/970.1/Pam/v. 10/no. 9).  Well-written letter to the editor of the Miami County Republican, by the chief of the Miami tribe, 1874, discussing the Treaty of 1854 in detail. Very Informative from theIndian perspective.

“Settlers Upon Miami Reserve In Kansas.” 36th Congress. 1st Session. Report 256. (K/970.1/Pam/v.10/No.10/1859.  Report by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, stating that all persons, not authorized to live on Indian lands be removed. One letter however disagrees, offering a different perspective.

Shunk, Sam. “Miami Village Census.” Kansas State Census 1859. (Lykins Co./Osage Twp./July 1, 1859/p.1).  Although accompanied by a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, with emphasis on hiring a school teacher, the list of individuals list no Indians in its census.



Volunteer John Liezert contributed annotations to some of the entries.

A formal portrait of a young, unidentified, Pawnee man, 1860sAdams, F.G. (Franklin G.) The Homestead Guide, describing the Great Homestead Region in Kansas and Nebraska. Waterville, Kan.: F.G. Adams, Compiler and Publisher, 1873. (K/917.81/Ad1/ pp. 96-97).  A very brief, but interesting account of the Pawnee Indians historically. Includes mention of troubles with other tribes and some reference to treaties.

Armytage, W. H. G. The Hon. Charles Augustus Murray Among the Pawnees, 1835. (977.305/IL6c/New Series./v. 21/no.3/pp. 189-201).  Details the travels with the Pawnee from Fort Leavenworth, northwest to the Nebraska-Kansas line, and back to Fort Leavenworth. Offers some new incites into the Pawnee tribe, including their location along the Smokey Hill river.

Ashworth, Kenneth "Pawnee Art Style and Culture." Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas, 1981.

Blaine, Martha Royce. Pawnee Passage: 1870 –1875. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990. (970.3/–P28/B574).  By far, one of the better sources for the culture, heritage, and ethnology of the Pawnee Indians. Discusses treaties, white migration, reservations of the tribes in Kansas and Nebraska. Discusses in depth the tribes migration from Nebraska to Okalahoma via Kansas.

Blaine, Martha Royce. “The Pawnee-Wichita Visitation Cycle: Historic Manifestations of an Ancient Friendship.” In Pathways to Plains Prehistory: Anthropological perspectives of Plains Natives and their Pasts. Duncan, Okla.: Cross Timbers Press. 1982.  Provides and interesting account of the relationship between the Pawnee and Wichita tribes dating back to 1541. Discusses their intermarriage of members, their cross culture, and their history while in Kansas. An excellent bibliography is noted.

Connelley, William Elsey. “Notes on the Early Indian Occupancy of the Great Plains.”
(SP/906/K13/v. 14/pp. 438-470).  An excellent source of information for all plains tribes, but contains important information relating to the Pawnee tribes in Kansas, their locations, and a graphic map to geographically place the tribes.

Connelley, William Elsey. A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co., 1918). (K/978.1/C76/1918/v. 1/pp. 230 – 233).  Describes the history of the Pawnee in Kansas, lists some of the borders and the years of Kansas settlement. Also includes the four major bands of Pawnee Indians, various treaties, and the mode of dress of the tribe. Presents an interesting description of the tribes.

Correspondence on the Subject of the Emigration of Indians between the 30th of November,1831 and 27th of December, 1833. Washington: Printed by Duff Green, 1835. (970.5/Un3e/v. 2/pp. 717-719).  Letters from one John Doughtery, a superintendent of Indian affairs to the head of Indian affairs in St. Louis, describing the conditions in the Pawnee Camps in Kansas, and the fighting between the Pawnee and the Delaware tribes.

Dawson, Charles. Pioneer Tales of the Oregon Trail and of Jefferson County. Topeka, Kan.: Crane & Co., 1912. (978.3/D32/pp. 133-152).  Although the historical facts are similar to other sources, new information is provided as to the tribes time in Kansas, along the Republican river and Republic county, from 1834-1870.

DeVoe, Carrie. Legends of the Kaw. Kansas City, Mo.: Franklin Hudson Publishing Co., 1904. (K/970.8/D49/pp. 34-66).  An excellent description of the tribes roaming in Kansas and Nebraska, including references to their customs of marriage, buffalo hunt, music, government, battles, religion, and different tribes within the Pawnee nation.

Donaldson, Thomas. The George Catlin Indian Gallery in the U.S. National Museum.
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1887. (970.1/C28d/1886/pt. 5/pp. 68-71).  Although an extremely interesting source of information for many Indian tribes, there is little relevance to the Pawnee tribes in Kansas, though pertinent statistics are available for the fact that the Pawnee did reside in Northern Kansas until approx. 1855.

Dorsey, George A. Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee. Houghton, Mifflin and Company, Boston, 1904.

__________. The Pawnee: Mythology, Part I. Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C., 1906.

Dunbar, John B. “The Pawnee Indians----Their Habits and Customs.” The Magazine of American History, 1880. (973.05/Am3m/Vol. 5/pp. 322-345).  An excellent reference for understanding the Pawnee lifestyle, from trade, to food, clothing and war. The role of women and the elderly are also detailed. Included is an very informative map detailing the Pawnee territory, including Kansas.

Dunbar, John B. “The Pawnee Indians; Their History and Ethnology.” The Magazine of American History, 1880. (973.05/Am3m/Vol. 4./pp. 241-281).  A well written reference not only directed toward the history of the Pawnee Indians, but also pertinent information regarding their culture, lifestyle, their child rearing practices and laws governing the tribe. An excellent resource.

Forman, Grant. The Last Trek of the Indians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946. (970.5/F761L/p. 237-245).  While there is minimal description of the Pawnee in Kansas, there is good information regarding the inter tribal treaties, U.S. treaties, and selling of tribal lands in Nebraska, hence their movement to Oklahoma.

Fradin, Dennis B. The Pawnee. Childrens Press, Chicago, 1988.

Fussell, Betty The Story of Corn. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1992.

Grinnell, George Bird. Pawnee: Hero Stories and Folk-Tales. Forest and Stream Publishing Company, 1889. (970.3/-P28g).  Fascinating details of their culture. Also included is data pertaining to their vital statistics, crops, government subsidies. An excellent resource.

Hazan, R.W. “History of the Pawnee Indians.” Fremont Tribune. 1893. (970.3/–P28H/
pp. 7-21).  While presenting an excellent account of the Pawnee tribe from Lewis & Clark period to their movement to Oklahoma, there is little information of the tribe’s life while in Kansas.

Heape, Roger Kent. Pawnee – United States Relations from 1803-1875. (Dissertation for PH.D, Saint Louis University, 1982). (Microfilm LM 760).  Although little information is revealed about the Pawnee in Kansas, this paper presents a well written account of the Pawnee’s four main tribes, their intense battles with other tribes and settlers, their population decline and reasons for same, treaties, and movement from Nebraska to Oklahoma. Includes an excellent bibliography.

Hyde, George E. The Pawnee Indians. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1951.

Mead, James R. (James Richard). “The Pawnees as I Knew Them.” Transactions of the Kansas State Historical Society 1907-1908. Topeka: State Printing Office, 1908. (SP/906/K13/Vol. 10/pp. 106-111).  Describes the author's experience with the Pawnee Indians from 1859-1867, while the tribe was in Kansas and Oklahoma. Very informative article, with relevant information pertaining to Kansas, including wars with other tribes, interactions with settlers, and the general appearance of the tribe.

Murie, James R. Ceremonies of the Pawnee: Part II The South Bands. Edited by Douglas R. Parks. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology No. 27. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 1981.

Pattie, James O. (James Ohio). The Personal Narrative of James O. Pattie of Kentucky. Chicago: Lakeside Press, 1930. (917.8/P278/P 6-35).  Written during the author’s expedition in 1824-1841 across the plains to Santa Fe. Gives a well written account into his 2-4 weeks spent with the Pawnee tribe in northern Kansas, including hunting, war parties, and general living descriptions.

Reichman, O. J. Konza Prairie: A Tallgrass Natural History. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, 1987.

Smith, Bernard Bryan. The Heart of the New Kansas. Great Bend, Kan.: B.B. Smyth, Book and Job Printer, 1880. (K 978.1/-B28/Sm96/pp. 68-74).  Describes an Indian battle between a Cheyenne and Pawnee band on Lowrey’s Island opposite Larned in 1860, as witnessed by a Maj. Henry Inman. of Larned. Gives an in depth view into the war like nature and strategies of the Pawnee.

United States. Department of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. St. Louis Superintendency papers, 1807-1855. (MS 95 Vol. 6-7).  Also known as the “Clark Papers”. Letters deal with U.S.-Pawnee relations in Kansas, including wars with other tribes, need for proper medical care, agriculture, and white settlers. Extremely informative. An online index to the letters can be found on the KSHS website.

“The War between Nebraska and Kansas.” Nebraska History Magazine. Nebraska Historical Society, 1927. (978.206/N27/p. 159-261).  An often one-sided account of the true location of the Pike-Pawnee Indian Village, where the U.S. flag replaced the Spanish flag. The articles do offer some new insight and maps as to the locations of the Pawnee tribes. The writings do contain an excellent descriptive bibliography.

Wedel, Waldo R. Prehistoric Man on the Great Plains. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1961.

__________. "Native Astronomy and the Plains Caddoans." In Native American Astronomy, edited by Anthony F. Aveni, pp. 131-145. University of Texas Press, Austin, 1977.

__________. Central Plains Prehistory: Holocene Environments and Culture Change in the Republican River Basin. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 1986.

Weltfish, Gene The Lost Universe. Basic Books, Inc., New York, 1965

White, Richard. The Roots of Dependency. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983. (970.6/W585/pp. 148-211).  An excellent history of the Pawnee Indians from the 15th century to the 1870’s. Included are the changes in their environment, social customs, and interaction with other Indian tribes and the white man, which greatly reduced their number. Contains a thorough bibliography.

Williamson, John W. “Go South and Be Free.” Chronicles of Oklahoma, 1987.
(976.606/Ok 4/Vol. 65/pp. 132-157).  Describes the movement of the Pawnee tribes from Nebraska to Oklahoma in 1874-1875. Includes description of the movement through Kansas with a map of the migration—helpful to view areas of Kansas. Contains very interesting endnotes.

Williamson, Ray A. Living the Sky: The Cosmos of the American Indians. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1984.

Witty, Thomas A., Jr. "Along the Southern Edge: The Central Plains Tradition in Kansas." In The Central Plains Tradition: Internal Developments and External Relationships, edited by Donald J. Blakeslee, pp. 56-66. Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 1978.

Zimmerman, Mark E. “The Pawnee Americans.” Collections of the Kansas State Historical Society, 1923 – 1925. Topeka: State Printing Plant, 1925. (SP 906/K13/ Vol.16/pp. 463-475).  An archeological history of the Pawnee, from as early as 1541, to the 1830’s. Presents information from the tribes movement to Kansas from New Mexico, and from a segment of the tribe that came to Kansas from Ohio. Very interesting, informative

Zimmerman, Mark E. “Pikes Pawnee Republic Village.” Twenty-Fifth Biennial Report of the Board of Directors, Kansas State Historical Society, from July 1924-June 1926.
Topeka: State Printing Plant, 1927. (SP 906/K13b/25th/pp. 71-74).  Investigation satisfies the claim that the American flag was raised by a Lt. Pike on the Kansas side of the Nebraska-Kansas line in 1806, giving the territory to the U.S. from Mexico. Excellent description of relics and gravesites found to substantiate the claim.

Sac and Fox

Completion of this bibliography was made possible by volunteer John Liezert.

A photograph showing Sak and Fox tribe members, adults and children, posed by a bark house.“Appraisal of Competency.” 83rd Congress, 2nd Session. 1954. (Ser. Doc. no. 11747/p. 83).  Determination by the U.S. Government, as to whether the members of the Sac and Fox tribes were able to manage their own affairs. Some interesting assumptions.

“Appropriations For Sac and Fox Indians.” 40th Congress, 3rd Session. 1869. (Ser. Doc. 1372/no. 38).  Letters from the committee on Indian affairs to the Secretary of the Interior, concerning estimates of appropriations required to fulfill treaty stipulations with the tribe, as a result of the Treaty of 1867. Definitely worth reading.

Armstrong, John. The Eclectic Almanac for the Year 1839. (Microfilm reel: MS 139.02).  Notations in the book indicate that the Sac and Fox of the Presbyterian Mission used it in present day Doniphan County. While the reading is interesting, little information is recovered.

Bruce, Harold E. Kansas Indians of Today. (970.1/Pam./v. 12/no. 7).  Written primarily about the Potawatomi, Kickapoo, Iowa, Sac and Fox, the article presents a very interesting view of history of the tries in Kansas, their integration into white culture, and aspects of their education. Worth reading.

Bushnell, David I. Jr. “Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan, and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi.” Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington, 1922. (572/Sm6/ no. 77/p. 37).  Discusses the similarities between the Sac and Fox tribes, with emphasis on the structures of their homes and their planting techniques. Illustrations are present. While not specific to Kansas, the information, though minimal is useful and an adequate bibliography is included.

Confederation of American Indians, compilers. Indian Reservations, A State and Federal Handbook. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company, Inc., 1986. (970.5/C76/p. 95).  Overview of the Sac and Foxes federal reservation in Kansas. Though brief, it provides interesting and useful information.

Connelly, William. A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans. Chicago and New York: Lewis Publishing Co. 1918. (K/978.1/C76/1918/v. I/p. 265).  Although brief, the information presents an interesting view of the Tribes, with respect to their relations to the U.S. Government, including various frauds committed by members of Lincoln’s cabinet and others. Definitely worth reading.

Clark, William H. “Indian Pow-wow.” Ottawa Weekly Herald, October 23, 1903.
(Microfilm reel: O 598/10-23-03/p. 10).  Well-written article covering the meeting between Chief’s of the Sac and Fox, and one J.p. Harris, in which the Chief’s wish to return to their lands in Franklin County. The article relates how the white leaders shunned any suggestion by the tribe, and also presents some interesting analogies. Worth reading.

Ferris, Mrs. I.M. “Sauks and Foxes in Franklin and Osage Counties.” Kansas State Historical Society, 1909 – 1910. Topeka, 1910. (SP/906/K13/v. II/p. 333).  A well-written document about the tries, including detailed incites into their lives and history, while in Kansas. Census, Indian speeches, and accounts by those present are included. Excellent footnotes and illustrations.

Forman, Grant. The Last Trek of the Indians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946. (970.5/F761L/pp. 133, 222).  A well-written history of the Sauk and Foxes, with information particularly relevant to their life in Kansas, including specific treaties. Excellent, with exceptional footnotes.

Gale, George. “The Sac, Foxes, and Potowatomies, and a tale of all tribes in 1866.” In
Upper Mississippi and the Progress of Civilization, 291.  Chicago: Clarke and Co., 1867. (970.1/G131/p. 291).  Well-written historical perspective. Includes many of the treaties associated with the U.S. Government and the tribes of the Sac and Fox. Worth reading.

Gray, P. L. Gray’s Doniphan County History. Bendana, Kansas: The Roycroft Press, 1905. (K/978.1/–D71/G79/Pt.2/pp. 11, 27, 30).  Gives brief portrayals of the tribe, with locations of their territory, history and White Cloud and Highland Station, Kansas’s sites. Not overly informative.

Green, Charles R. Early Days in Kansas, Tales and Traditions of the Marias des Cygnes Valley. Olathe, Kansas, v. 5, 1914. (K/978.1/-Os1/G82/v. 5).  A narrative of aspects of early life in the area, from 1880 – 1907. Tales of the Sac and Fox are included, with interesting stories about Quenemo, Mokohoka, and various tribal rites. Looks at the townships of Arvonia and Melvern. Provides a local historical point of interest.

Green, Charles R. Early Days in Kansas In Keokuk’s Time on the Kansas Reservation.
Olathe, Kansas 1913. (K/978.1/-Os1/G82/Pam. v.1/no.8).  A well-written account of incidents pertaining to the chief of the Sac and Foxes, tales of early settlers, and life on the reservation, which was located at the head of the Osage river from 1846 – 1870. Includes maps and photographs. Worth reading.

Green, Charles. R. “The Indians of Huron County, One Hundred Years Ago.” Fireland Pioneer, Norwalk, Ohio, 1906. Kansas State Historical Society. (K/978.1/–Os1/G82).  Although mainly discussing Indian Tribes of Ohio, from 1795 – 1876, the writing presents an historical perspective of the Sac tribe with emphasis on their movement to Kansas, and an interesting biography on Chief Quenemo, for which the city was named.

Green, C. R. Sac and Fox Indians in Kansas: Mokohoko’s Stubbornness. Olathe, Kansas. Nov. 1914. (K/970.1/Pam./v. 10/no. 16).  Exceptionally interesting, with a brief history of the Sac and Fox tribes, and especially Chief Mokohok’s band of Indians, Included is his speech to the Indian Council in 1869, and other assorted facts, Definitely worth reading.

Green, C. R. “Sac and Fox History,” and “ A Visit Among the Sac and Fox and Delaware Indians.” The Peoples Herald. Dec. 3, 1903. (K/Port./970.1/G82).  Both articles present some new perspectives of both tribes, Short, but informative, especially for the areas around Osage and Franklin counties.

Hagan William Thomas. The Sac and Fox Indians. Norman, Oklahoma : University of Oklahoma Press, 1958. (970.3/-Sa 89).  An excellent, well-written account of the Sac and Foxes, from the early 1800’s to the 1890’s. Demonstrates the clash of two distinct civilizations. A must read source, with an exceptional bibliography.

Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980. (352.2/H261/p. 68).  Although a brief history is recounted, most of the information concerns the tribe between the 1830’s and the 1970’s. Presents some useful information.

Harvey, A.M. “The Trail of the Sac and Fox.” Tales and Trials of the Wakarusa.
Topeka, Kansas: Crane and Co., 1917. (K/978.1/-sh1/H29/p. 13).  Although brief, the chapter does present a vivid image of landmarks along the river.

Herring, Joseph B. “Indian Intransigency in Kansas: Government Bureaucracy vs. Mokohoko’s Sacs and Foxes.” Western Historical Quarterly. Vol. 17, 1986.
(978.05/W. 524/v. 17/p. 185).  Discusses the ordering of the expulsion of Chief Mokohoko’s people from Kansas in 1866. Very interesting, especially in examining the differing views of the settlers, the U.S. government and the Indians themselves. Worth reading, with excellent footnotes.

Hill, Edward E, “Sac and Fox Agency, 1824 – 1880.” Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc., 1974. (970.5/H551/p. 150).  Provides a good reference source for the field units of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, during this time. Denotes the agent, the date of the appointment, and gives a brief history of the tribes.

Indian Census Rolls. (Microfilm reels: MS 1958, 1959, 1960).  Lists tribes’ members of the Sac and Fox, Iowa Agency, from 1888 – 1939. Provides a breakdown according to sex, juveniles and school children. Useful for genealogical references.

"Indian History Collection." Kansas State Historical Society Manuscript Collections. (Collection 590/Box 4 of 7).  Contains hand written letters, from 1851 – 1909, from individuals involved with the Sac and Fox tribes in Kansas. Extremely informative. Definitely worth reading.

Indian and Military Reservation Field Notes and Correspondence, 1839 – 1883.
(Microfilm reel: MS 1046.4).  Although measurements and coordinates are displayed, without a map little information can be obtained.

Jones, William. “The Sales of the Lands in Kansas.” Fox Texts. American Ethnological Society. Leyden: E.J. Brill, Publishers and Printers, 1907. (970.3/-F83J/p. 31).  Based on oral historical narratives, the lore of selling the land is told in both English and the Algonquin dialect. Extremely interesting, but not overly informative.

Kapler, Charles J. Indian Affairs, Laws, and Treaties. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1904. (970.5/Un3TK/v. 1-6).  As a former clerk to the committee on Indian affairs, the author present the exact treaties between all Indian tribes and the U.S. Government, Treaties involving the Sac and Fox tribes include cessation of lands, payments, laws, and allotment of lands. The work covers a period between 1830 and the early 1900’s. Worth reading. See Index.

Lasley, Mary Mrs. “Sac and Fox Tales.” Journal of American Folklore. Boston and New York, July – Sept. 1906. (398.05/J82/v. 15/p. 170).  The daughter of Chief Black Hawk wrote the article, while she resided in Reserve, Kansas, in Brown County. The tales show that some of the old settlers tales may have mixed with Indian lore. Very interesting and worth reading.

Leitch, Barbara A. A Concise Dictionary of Indian Tribes of North America.
Michigan: Reference Publications, Inc., 1979. (GL/970.1/L535/pp. 162, 409).  A brief history of beliefs and customs of each tribe. Interesting, with an excellent bibliography.

Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824 – 1881. Sac and Fox Agency, 1824 – 1858. (Microfilm reels: MS 275 and 276).  Although some are difficult to read, the letters present some insight into the relationships between the Indians and the White Settlers. Included are many letters from the Indians, asking for claims to be filed against settlers, for stolen property, aggression, and the return of lands. Worth Reading.

Michelson, Truman. Contributions to Fox Ethnology. Washington, 1927. (572/Sm6/no. 85).  An excellent, descriptive work of the customs of the Fox tribe, including Indian texts, with English translation, linguistic notes, and illustrations. Excellent bibliography.

Michelson, Truman. “Observations on the Thunder Dance of the Bear Gens of the Fox Indians.” Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 87. Washington, D.C., 1929.
(572/Sm6/Bull. no. 89).  An interesting look on the cultural aspects of the dance, with diagrams, illustrations, and a translation in both English and the Fox dialect.

Morgan, Lewis Henry. The Indian Journals, 1859 – 1862. New York: Dover Publications, 1933. (970.1/M823/1993).  A generalized discussion of all Indian tribes, with some useful information related to the Sac and Foxes.

“Materials, Laws, and Treaties.” 82nd Congress, 2nd Session. 1953. (Serial no. 11582/pp. 568 and 944).  Contains a concise, excellent history of the Sac and Fox, A discussion of the tribes census, cultural, economic and social conditions, various claims filed, and a review of the reservations in Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska. The period covered is between the early 1900’s and 1950. Worth reading, with an excellent bibliography.

Parsons, William B. “The Sac and Foxes.” Kansas Magazine. Topeka, 1872. (K/050
/K 13/v. II/pp. 215 and 342).  Although brief, the articles present an excellent historical perspective of the wars with other Indian tribes and with settlers. Also presented, is an excellent biographical sketch of Chief Black Hawk, the Black Hawk war, and its causes. Worth reading.

Illustration of Keokuk, a Sac and Fox chief, drawn by the famed artist George Catlin“Regarding Removal of Indian Bureau Supervision.” 83rd Congress, 2nd Session. 1954
(Ser. Doc. 11747/p. 427).  The need for supervision is discussed. Tribes of the Sac and Fox in Kansas and Nebraska, no longer wanted or needed supervision, while those members in Oklahoma requested continued supervision. Interesting as to rationale.

“Reports and Paper Congruent with Membership of the Sac and Fox Indians.” 51st Congress, 1st Session. 1890. (Ser. Doc. 2686/no. 82).  Letters between the Dept. of the Interior and the various Indian Agency personnel, regarding the names of people being added to the Sac and Fox membership list, resulting in pain and unpaid annuities. Ethical practices might be questioned. Worth reading.

Sac and Fox Tribe of Missouri. Community Development Block Grant Pre-Application.
December 1979. (628/En 89/no. 29).  This application is for the purpose of acquiring land and to provide future homes and community services to tribal members. Included, is a history of the tribe, up to 1979, plans for the dispersion of monies, health care, etc. Maps are included of proposed land acquisitions. Very informative.

“Sac and Fox Indians To Be Guest For Centennial.” Emporia Gazette, June 28, 1957. In Lyon County Clippings, 5:26. (K/978.1/–L98/Clipp./v. 5/p. 26).  Although not overly informative, the article does share a few facts pertinent to the tribe.

Sac and Fox Newspapers Clippings. compiled by the Kansas Historical Society (970.1/Sa2/Clipp./v. 1).Newspaper clippings from 1833 – 1967, provide information relevant to the tribes from Chief Black Hawk to Jim Thorpe. Many aspects of tribal history are included, as are illustrations. Definitely worth reading.

"Sac and Fox Papers, 1894 – 1953". Margrave Family Papers, 1861 –1961. (Series 6. Microfilm reel: MF 2680).  Letters to the Secretary of the Interior and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs concerning the release of funds held in trust for the Sac and Fox. Letters involve the tribes of Kansas and Oklahoma. Very interesting and worth reading, as the Margrave family was composed of Sac and Fox members.

Schmeckebier, Lawrence F. The Office of Indian Affairs, It’s History, Activities and Organization. Baltimore, Maryland: The John Hopkins Press, 1927. (970.5/Sch 45/p. 108).  A very brief review of the Treaty of 1867, whereby the Sac and Fox ceded their lands in Kansas, and moved to the Indian Territory. Maps included.

Tax Sol. “The Social Organization of the Fox Indians.” Social Anthropology of North America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1937. (970.6/So 13/p. 243).  A very informative writing, which includes the Kinship system, social structures and customs, and the view of the life cycle. An excellent source.

Treaty Between the United States and the Confederated Tribes of the Sac and Foxes of the Mississippi. (K/970.1/Pam./v.12/no. 6).  The treaty, made in 1859, and ratified in 1860, does not relate to Kansas proper, but does present the government’s view of what the Tribes wanted and what the government wanted for the tribes. Interesting reading.

United States Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs. St. Louis Superintendency Papers, 1807 – 1855. (Microfilm reel: MS 95 Vol. 6-7).  Also known as the “Clark Papers.” Letters recommending agricultural assistance and complaining about the lack of enforcement of treaty laws.

U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs. Constitution and By-Laws of the Sac and Fox Tribe of Missouri, of the Sac and Fox Reservations in Kansas and Nebraska. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1937. (970.5/Un3/Pam./v. 5).  Description of the territory, governing body, membership, duties of officers, and voting qualifications. Worth reading.

U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs. Corporate Charter of the Sac and Fox tribe of Missouri, and the Sac and Fox reservations in Kansas and Nebraska. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1937. (970.5/Un3/Pam v. 6).  A description of the rights of the tribe to manage their own lands, and monies, including Corporate dividends and accounts. From the early treaties, to this modern charter, the cultural assimilation is very evident. Worth reading.

Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of American Indian Tribes. New York, New York. 1988.
(979.1/F761L/pp. 133, 210).  Brief history and description of trial social customs. Simplistic, but interesting.



Completion of this bibliography was made possible by volunteer John Liezert.

Image of a George Catlin portrait of Tenskwatawa, a revered religious figure among the Shawnee.Abbott, James Burnett. The Abbott Papers. 1815 – 1869. (Microfilm reels: MS 1258-1260).  Correspondence and documents pertaining to Abbott’s participation in Kansas’s territorial affairs, including his working as an agent for the Shawnee Indians. The papers are indexed, with Series III, noting the Indian Agency Records, Kansas Agency, 1851-1876. Very informative and provides many aspects to the Shawnees, including maps and other important data to further understand the Shawnee tribes in Kansas.

“Absentee Shawnee Lands in Kansas.” In Report of the Committees of the Senate of the U.S., 1873-1874. 43rd Congress. 1st Session. (no. 337/Ser. Doc./1587).  Article denotes a resolution for the relief of settlers living on the Absentee Shawnee lands in Kansas, due to errors made by the Sec. of the Interior in 1869, and interpretation of the 1845 treaty.

Alford, Thomas Wildcat. Civilization. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936.
(970.2/Al28).  An authentic story of how the great grandson of Tecumseh, left his tribe to enter the culture of the white men. Although not directly related to Kansas, the story does offer an excellent incite into the differing cultures.

Anderson, W.J. “The Captain Joseph Parks House.” Kansas City, 1906. (K/970.1/Pam./v. 7).  Although brief, the article presents the life of a chief of the Shawnee, and his relation with the U.S. government. Included are picture if his home and his monument in Johnston County.

“Appropriations for Seneca and Shawnee Indians.” Letter from the U.S. Secretary of the Interior. In 40th Congress. 3rd Session. (Ser. 1372. Ex. Doc. no. 47).  Estimates by the Congress to fulfill treaty stipulations of both tribes, based on the Treaty of 1867.

Beachy, E.B. Dykes. “Reminders of Shawnee Indians in Kansas City Area.”
Kansas City Times. April 27, 1951. (970.1/Sh2/Clipp./p. 29).Presents various areas and directions of Shawnee markers, homes, and schools around Kansas City. Although contains only a small amount of history, interesting article.

Bent, George. “Fifty Years with the Cheyennes.” (051/F92b/v. 4/no. 5/p. 4).  Description of a fight between the Cheyenne and Shawnee trappers in 1848 on what is now called the Delaware Creek. Interesting, not overly informative.

“Black Bob Band of Shawnee Indians.” In Letter from the Secretary of the Interior, Bureau Of Indian Affairs. 1871. 42nd Congress, 1st Session. (Ex. Doc. no.3/Ser. Doc. 1470).  Letter requesting attention to Misc. Doc. no. 61, concerning legislature not acted upon, specifically the removal of certain rules pertaining to the tribe’s allotment under the Treaty of 1854.

“Black Bob Indian Lands.” Supplement to the Kansas City Tribune, July 21, 1870.
(970.1/Pam./v. 4/Misc. Doc. no. 49).  Newspaper article pertaining to the sale of Black Bob’s Reservation lands. Presents both the positives and negatives of the sale. Very interesting.

“Bluejacket versus the Commissioners of Johnson County, et. al.” Kansas Reports.
Davenport, Iowa: Lose and Griggs, 1866. (SP/345.42/K13/v.3/p.299).  Excellent review of the taxation case. Worth reading.

Brinton, (M.D.) D.G. “The Walam Olum: Its origin, Authenticity and Contents.”
Philadelphia, 1885. (970.3/-D37b/p. 160).  A description of the “printed record” and put to music by the Delaware and Shawnee tribes, who were closely connected by interrelations. The Walum Olum details the beginning of the universe as part of the Algonquin mythology. Symbols and words are provided. Extremely interesting.

“Census of Shawnee’s, Native and Adopted, 1857.” Kansas State Historical Society Archives.  Contains the number of Shawnee Indians, including their age, sex, orphans and designation of lands to members, who have made the selection of 200 acres of land, given to them by the 1854 Treaty.

“Claims of the Kansas Indians.” In Letters from the Secretary of the Interior, Department of Indians Affairs. 41st Congress. 2nd Session. (Ex. Doc. 127/Ser. Doc. 1417).  Copy of a report, made under the Treaty of 1867 with various tribes, including the Shawnee, whereby Indian losses were sustained after being forced from their homes, following the Civil War. Includes claimants and dollar amounts allowed.

Connelly, William E. A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans. Chicago, New York: Lewis Publishing Co., 1918. (K/978.1/C76/1918/v. 1/p. 239).  A brief, well written history of the Shawnee Indians, with special emphasis on the tribe, while in Kansas. Very informative

Deatherege, Charles P. Early History of Greater Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas. Kansas City Missouri, 1927. (977.82/-K13/D 48/v. 1/p.682).  An excellent, very detailed history of the Black Bob Reservation, and the conflicts that arose after the Civil War. Important for understanding this particular reservation.

“Departure of the Shawnee.” Ottawa Journal. April 14, 1870. (Microfilm reel: O 609/4-14-70).  While recounting the history of the Shawnee, the first few paragraphs describe this once proud warrior tribe, as it is seen leaving Kansas. Presents a vastly different view and picture of a proud tribe.

“Depredations Upon the Shawnee Indians.” In House of Representatives. 36th Congress. 1st session. Report no.300, March 1860. (K/970.1/Pam./v. 10/no. 7).  Report from the Committee on Indian Affairs, asking for indemnity for property destroyed in 1855-1857. Although brief, the article does present some information pertinent to past treaties and the tribe’s relationships with white men.

DeVoe, Carrie. Legends of the Kaw. Kansas City, Mo: Franklin Hudson Publishing Co. 1904. (970.8/D49/p. 167).  A very interesting account of Shawnee lore and tradition, including belief that they were descendents of one of the lost tribes of Israel. Also notes that Topeka was a major hunting ground of the Shawnee.

Donaldson, Thomas. The George Catlin Indian Gallery. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing office, 1887. (970.1/C28d/p. 200).  Includes illustrations by the famous painter, with narratives about each illustration. Done in 1831, the book is informative and insightful into the habits of the Shawnee.

Harrington, Grant W. The Shawnees in Kansas. Kansas City, Kan.: Western Pioneer Press, 1937. (K/970.3/H237).  Descriptive of the Shawnee’s movement to Kansas, with Special emphasis on Presidential papers, explanations of various treaties, and litigation by one tribal chief against Johnson county relevant to land taxation. Very informative.

Harvey, Henry. History of the Shawnee Indians, from 1681-1854 Inclusive. Cincinnati: Ephraim Morgan and Sons, 1855. (970.3/H26).  Excellent historical account of the Shawnee Indians, including treaties, fraud committed by the U.S. government with respect to Indian lands, their movement to Kansas, and the various councils related to the trines’ and their government. Definitely worth reading.

Hill, Edward E. “Shawnee Agency, 1855-1876.” The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc., 1974. (970.5/H551/p. 169).  Overview of the Shawnee Agency from early treaties to 1867. Includes two other Shawnee groups, the Eastern Shawnee and the Absentee Shawnee. Excellent reference index.

Howard, James H. Shawnee. Ohio University Press, 1981. (970.6/H834).  Covers most aspects of Shawnee culture, from dance and music, to dress and sports. Included are many references to their days, both in Ohio and Kansas. Interesting, with and excellent bibliography.

“Indian Treaties and Councils Affecting Kansas, 1541-1873.” Kansas Historical Society, 1923-1925. Topeka, Kansas. 1925. (SP/906/K13/v. 16/p. 746).  Contains places and dates, where councils were held, the names of tribes, commissioners, and Indians involved. Denoted the frequent treaties between the government and the Kansas tribes, resulting in vastly decreased size of reservations. Extremely informative.

Indian Pamphlets. (970.1/Pam. v.4).  A collection of information on many Indian Tribes, including the Shawnee.

Johnston, John Esq. “Account of the Present State of the Indian Tribes Inhabiting Ohio.” In Collections of the American Antiquarian Society, I:219. Worcester, Massachusetts, 1820. (973.06/Am3a/v. 1/p. 219).  Notes from the United States Agent of Indians affairs, at Piqua, Ohio. Provides a totally different account of the origin of the Shawnee tribes, through memories of elder tribesmen. Offers census of the tribe (1819), the four tribes of the Shawnee, their vocabulary and treaties, with amounts paid to the various tribes. Very interesting and informative.

Johnston, John Esq. “Recollections of the Last Sixty Years.” The Cincinnati Miscellany, Cincinnati, Ohio 1845. (977.12/–c49/c49/v. 2/p. 242).  More descriptive of the Shawnee chief, Tecumseh, than the tribe in general. Only briefly mentions the move to Kansas in 1833.

Johnson County Community College. The Shawnee Indians in Johnson County, Kansas. Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1985. (K/970.3/Pam./v. 3/no. 3).  Interesting and descriptive of the tribe in general, including descriptions of the Shawnee Methodist Mission, 1839-1862, and three other missions, located within the county. Includes an excellent annotated bibliography.

“Kansas Citizen Has a Copy of an 1832 Treaty with the Shawnee Indians.”
Kansas City Times, Jan. 26, 1935. (K/970.1/Sh2/Clip./Shawnee/v. 1/p. 17).  Very Interesting, showing the importance of the treaty with the growth of Kansas City.

Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs. Laws and Treaties. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1904. (970.5/Un3tK/v.2).  The author, a clerk to the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, has compiled all treaties for all Indian tribes. The treaties with the Shawnee, starting in Ohio and ending in there movement to the Indian Territory is not only the actual treaties, but the writings demonstrate the extent to which Indians lands, and customs were diminished. Very interesting and informative.

King, James L. The History of Shawnee County, Kansas. Chicago: Richmond and Arnold, 1905. (K/978.1/–Sh1/K50/p. 19).  Provides more history of the Shawnee from 1650, to their settling in Kansas in 1831.  Although interesting, little information is provided relating to the Shawnee tribe while in Kansas. Does note however, that the Shawnee were the first of the Eastern tribes to locate in Kansas.

Klopfenstein, Carl. Westward Ho: Removal of the Ohio Shawnees, 1832-1833.
Cincinnati: Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio, 1957. (GL 977.106/
H 626/v. 15/no.1/p.3).  An excellent article detailing the tribes’ removal to Kansas, including a map of Kansas’s lands set aside for their reservations. Also includes difficulties with the whites’, liquor, and inter-military disputes. Superb footnotes.

“Letter to the Secretary of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs.” In Misc. Document of the Senate of the United States. 42nd Congress. 1st Session. (Ser. Doc. 1467/ Misc. Doc. no. 8).  Restates the need to reevaluate and reinstate the provisions associated with the Treaty of 1854, due to the conditions of one Black Bob’s band of Shawnee.

“Letters for the Secretary of the Interior.” In 41st Congress, 2nd Session. (Ex. Doc. no. 40).  These letters concern the sale of lands to Black Bob’s Band of Shawnee. Extremely informative.

“Letters form the Secretary of the Interior.” In 42nd Congress, 2nd Session. (Ser. Doc. nos. 64 and 65/v. 7).  Lengthy letters containing more information on the sale of Black Bob’s Lands and Shawnee lands, in general. Sometimes redundant, but nevertheless, helpful.

“Letters from the Secretary of the Interior to the office of Indian affairs.” In The Executive Document of the Senate of the United States. 49th Congress. 2nd Session. (Ex. Doc. no.111/Ser. Doc./2449).  The letters, written in 1887,concern the sale of lands allotted to certain Shawnee Indians—members of one Black Bob’s Band. Details possible fraudulent use of land by this band. Lists tribe members and their lands. Interesting, but at times confusing.

“Letters from the Shawnee Agency in Olathe, Kansas, 1870, to the Dept. of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs.” In Executive Documents, 41st Congress, 3rd Session. (Exec. Doc. no. 130/Ser. Doc. 1460).  The letter concern lands given to the Black Bob Band via the treaty of 1854, and the tribe was then forced to sell off said lands by white settlers. Informative and supportive by the government of the U.S.

McCoy, Isaac. Remarks on Indian Reform and Colonization. New York, 1829.
(K/970.1/Pam./v. 1/1st edition, 1827.  While mentioning the Shawnee only briefly, the article does present an interesting view, pertaining to the attempt to remake the Native American into what the white man believed to be ideal.

McCoy, J.C. “Survey of Shawnee Lands.” Transactions of the Kansas State Historical Society. 1886-1893. Topeka, Kansas. 1890. (SP/906/K13/v. 4/p. 306).  Narration of the Shawnee Lands survey, 1833. Interesting with land marks noted, relevant to the present.

Middleton, D.W., Clerk Sup. Ct. U.S. “Supreme Court of the United States.”
Dec. 1866. (970.1/Pam./v. 4/no. 43).  The Supreme Court’s decision in the lawsuit of Charles Bluejacket and members of the Shawnee tribe versus the Board of Commissioners of Johnson County, concerning the right to tax Shawnee lands. Interesting.

Modified Rules and Regulations. Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs.
1869, 1878. (970.1/Pam./v. 4/nos. 38 and 39).  Concerns the conveyances of lands held by members of the Shawnee tribe of the State of Kansas, per the treaty of 1854. Interesting account of how the lands were to be divided.

Morgan, Lewis Henry. The Indian Journals, 1859-1862. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1959. (970.1/M823/p.49).  Offers incite into the different Shawnee tribes (clans), their culture, religion, family names, and forms of tribal government. Informative, with an excellent bibliography.

Murray, William G., M.A.I. Appraisal of Shawnee Tract in Kansas, 1854. U.S. Department of Justice, Ames, Iowa. Sept. 1956. (K/970.3/Sh1).  Very interesting and informative, denoting climate, soils, water, timber, population, and best use of the land. Includes maps and graphs. Coincides with the treaty if 1854.

“A Rare Historical Background”. The Quivaran. May, 1930. (970.1./-J63/QU 49/v. 1/no. 10/p. 4.   The article describes relics and skeletons, found at Lake Quivara, in Johnson County, Kansas. Presents information that the lake and surrounding area, was a favorite fishing and hunting ground of the Shawnee. Brief historical background, with pictures and sketches.

“A report to Congress from the Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs.” In
Executive Documents, 49th Congress, 2nd Session. (Ex. Doc. no. 111/Ser. Doc. 2449).  A report and papers relative to the sale of lands allotted to certain Shawnee Indians, namely Black Bob’s Band. Extremely interesting and informative, with charts denoting the allottee, the settler, and monetary data.

Roy, Jerry C. “A Shawnee Muster Roll: 334 Ohio of the Wapakoneta and Hog Creek Bands Emigrating to Kansas in 1832.” (929/J63/v. 7/no. 2/p. 38).  Provides census by individual tribes and names, in 1832. Interesting, with an excellent bibliography.

Royce, C.C. “An Inquiry into the Identity and History of the Shawnee Indians.” Magazine of Western History. Cleveland, Ohio, 1885. (973.05/no .21/v. 2/p.38).  Presents a brief history of the tribe from the early 1600’s to 1865. Interesting, with some information pertaining to the hostility against the United States, including the Revolutionary War.

Spencer, Joab, Rev. “The Shawnee Indians: their Customs, Traditions, and Folklore.”
Kansas State Historical Society, 1907-1908. Topeka, Kansas. (SP 906/K13/v. 10/p.382).  Although another brief history is presented, the main focus in on the Shawnee folklore and customs, as told to the author by Rev. Charles Bluejacket, between 1858 and 1860. Included is the lore of their origin, clans, warring with the Delaware tribes, customs, and the council house in Johnson County. Extremely interesting and informative.

Spencer, Joab, Rev. “Shawnee Folklore.” The Journal of American Folklore. Boston and New York, July-Sept. 1909, vol. Xxii, no. lxxxv. (GL/398.05/J82/v. 22/p. 319).  More folk tales told to the author, by Charles Bluejacket in 1858. Interesting.

Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution.
Bureau of American Ethnology. Washington: 1952. (572/Sm6)  Provides an interesting history of the Shawnee Indians, including names of subdivisions and villages, their relationships with white settlers, and their migrations. Also contains a map of some Shawnee divisions and some census figures. See index.

Shawnee Indians. (K/970.1/Sh2/Clip./Alph/v.1).  Extremely interesting and informative compilation of newspaper articles from 1897-1975, associated with the Shawnee Indians in Kansas. Includes locations of burial grounds, the tomb of the prophet, Lavlewasikaw, Indian homes, etc. An excellent resource.

Treaty With The Shawnees, May 10, 1854. (K/970.1/Pam. v. 7).  A copy of the treaty agreed to by Franklin Pierce, President of the U.S. and signed by various members of the Shawnee tribes. Very informative with respect of the government attempt to reduce Indian lands and to promote the Indian entrance into the white culture.

Trowbridge, C.C. Shawnee Traditions. University of Michigan Press, 1939.
(572/M58.0/no. 9).  Excellent source of information pertaining to the origin of the Shawnee, their legends, their customs and societies, medicine, music, and other cultural aspects, including their language.

U.S. Congress Committee of Interior and Insular Affairs. Materials, Laws, and Treaties Affecting Indians. Investigation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington, 1953. (Ser. no. 11582/p. 588).  Details the purpose of the Bureau if Indian Affairs, then reports on all tribes within the U.S., including the Shawnee. Though noted after 1950, the article does provide some useful information and an excellent index.

Wilson, Samuel M. “Shawnee Warriors at the Blue Lick.” The Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society. Frankfort: 1934. (970.906/K41/v. 32/p. 160).  Describes the battle between the Shawnee, Canadian Rangers, and Kentucky settlers, in 1782. Provides not only a description of the Shawnee ferociousness in battle, but also discusses the fact that the tribe joined forces with the British in the War of 1812. Discusses the view and leadership of the Shawnee chief, Tecumseh.

“Wyandotte and Shawnee Indian Lands In Wyandotte County, Kansas.”
Kansas State Historical Society, 1919-1922. (SP/906/K13/v. 15/p. 103).  Informative account of the Wyandotte and Shawnee tribes settling in Kansas, The Shawnee in 1828, in areas now occupied by Kansas City, Kansas. Includes names and allotments of both tribes.

Wyandotte (Huron)

Completion of this bibliography was made possible by volunteer John Liezert.

A portrait of Isaac Brown and his wife, members of the Wyandotte Indian tribe.Barbeau, C. M. “Wyandot Tales, Including Foreign Elements.” Journal of American Folklore. Vol. XXVIII, January-March 1915. no. CVII. Lancaster Pennsylvania and New York: 1915 (398.05/J82/v. 28/p. 83).  Interesting selection of tales among the tribe, and their similarities to tales heard within the white culture. Includes phrases and dialects of the Wyandotte. Interesting and enjoyable.

Barber, Rebecca. “A Short History of the Native Americans in Wyandotte County.” In
Ethnic History of Wyandotte County, Vol. 1. Kansas City, Kansas: Ethnic Council, Inc.
(K/978.1/-W97/K133s/p.13).  A well-written account of the Wyandot tribe, within Wyandotte County. It provides an excellent look at the local history. Definitely worth reading.

Belton, Frank H. (1835-1905) “The Wyandottes.” Kansas City Gazette. April 21, 1891. (Microfilm reel: K 19).  An excellent article denoting not only some historical facts, but also personal views by the author who was adopted into the tribe. Definitely worth reading.

“Claims of Wyandott Indians.” In 41st Congress, 3rd Session. 1871. (Ex. Doc. no. 83/Ser. Doc. 1454).  Claims by the Wyandott Indians for properties taken from them by white settlers, from 1849 – 1865. The claims include a list of the items, with appraisal for each. John C. Pratt, U.S. Indian agent addresses the claims. While interesting, the outcome of the claims is not noted.

“Claims of the Wyandott.” In 41st Congress, 2nd Session. 1870.x. Doc. no. 77. Ser. Doc. 1406.  Numerous letters to the Secretary of the Interior, from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, pertaining to claims for stolen properties from the Wyandotte’s, 1846 – 1862.  Very interesting, especially noting that in all claims, the claimant must be able to document that, indeed the item was taken. Worth reading.

Clarke, Peter Dooyentate. Origin and Traditional History of the Wyandotts and Sketches of Other Tribes of North America. Toronto: Hunter, Rose and Co., 1870. (970.3/-W97c).  Well-written book, which examines the early Wyandott Indians, while they resided in Canada, Ohio, and Michigan, from 1790 – 1811. This early historical perspective is excellent, and a major source of information.

Connelley, William E. “Kansas City, Kansas: It’s Place in the History of the State.”
Kansas Sate Historical Society. 1919 – 1922. Topeka: Kansas Sate Printing Office, 1923. (Sp/906/K13/v.15/p. 181).  Extremely well written presentation, denoting the importance of the Wyandotte tribe in Kansas, and the effect their support of one Aberland Gutherie, had on the state’s history. Definitely worth reading.

__________. “Religious Conceptions of Modern Hurons.” Kansas State Historical Society. 1919-1922. Topeka: Kansas State Printing Office, 1923. (SP/906
/K13/v.15/p. 92).  Excellent expose’ of the Huron/Wyandotte spiritual beliefs. Extremely interesting and informative, from both the religious and historical perspective.

__________. “First Provisional Constitution of Kansas.” Kansas State Historical Society. 1905-1906. Topeka, Kansas. (SP/906/K13/v.6/p. 97).  Well-written article concerning the importance of the Wyandotte tribe to the first Kansas Constitution. Very Informative, from both an historical and cultural perspective. Contains excellent footnotes. Definitely worth reading.

__________. Indian Myths. New York, Chicago: 1928. (K/970.8/C76).  Excellent book, composed of Wyandot tales, prayers, and stories, along with guides for teachers, explaining the Wyandot form of government, their religion, and much more. Must read material.

__________. Huron Place, The Burial Ground of the Wyandot Nation in Wyandotte County, Kansas, 1897. Kansas City, Kansas: City of Kansas City, Kansas, 1980. (970.3/Pam/v.2/no. 4).  Included is a description of the graves, i.e. names and dates. The book also provides a well-written history of the Huron (Wyandot), a letter concerning the removal of the cemetery, and various maps. Important for genealogical and historical facts. Worth reading.

__________. “The Wyandots.” In Indian Pamphlets. Kansas State Historical Society. (970.1/Pam/v. 4/p. 32).  A very descriptive perspective of the tribe, both historically and culturally. Various clans are examined, is in Wyandot folklore. Interesting and worth reading.

__________. A Standard History of Kansas and Kansans. Chicago and New York: Lewis Publishing Company, 1918. (K/978.1/C76/1918/v.1/p. 251).  Well-written essay exploring the history, form of government and the different clans. Provides new incites into the tribe. Worth reading.

Cowick, Kate L. The Story of Kansas City. Kansas City, Kansas: Central High School Press. 1924. (K/978.1/-W97/K1300/p. 2).  Although brief, the writing does focus on the Wyandot Indians as having founded Kansas City, Kansas, and the early history. Interesting.

Deatherage, Charles. Early History of Kansas City, Missouri and Kansas. Kansas City. Missouri, 1927. (977.82/-K13/D48/v.1/p. 686).  Brief history, but presents little information pertaining to the Wyandot in either Missouri or Kansas.

“Dedication Ceremony. Huron Indian Cemetery Improvement.” May 3, 1971.
(K/970.1/Pam/v. 10/no. 27).  Brief history of the Huron (Wyandot), with information pertaining to the cemetery, including the fight to preserve it. Very informative.

Devoe, Carrie. Legends of the Kaw. Kansas City, Missouri: Franklin Hudson Publishing Co., 1904. (970.8/D49/p. 125).  Well-written review of Wyandot folklore, with interesting facts concerning marriage, slavery and general welfare. Worth reading.

“An Editor Looks at Early Days Kansas: The Letters of Charles Monroe Chase."
 Kansas Historical Quarterly. Autumn 1960. Kansas State Historical Society,
Topeka. (SP/906/K 13/v. 26/p. 268).  These letters, written in 1873, offer little information about the tribe, except for comments about the Wyandotte women an listing the names of Indian real estate holders. Interesting, but not a great source of information.

“Estimates-Wyandot Indians.” In 33rd Congress, 2nd Session. 1855. (Ex. Doc. no. 88/Ser. Doc. 790).  Contains estimates of appropriations entered into agreement with the tribe, by the U.S. Government. Although interesting, information may be of limited use.

Finely, James Bradley. Life Among the Indians. Cincinnati: Curtis and Jennings, New York: Eaton and Mains. (970.1/F49).  Although no date is given for the writing, the book details tribes in the Northwest (Ohio and Michigan). There are many different sections pertaining to the Wyandot tribe, all with important information. The reader should be prepared to spend some time in pursuit of the tribe’s history and culture. Definitely well worth time spent.

Forman, Grant. The Last Trek of the Indians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1946. (970.5/F 761/p. 193).  An excellent review of the Wyandot’s history, including facts about their cultural and political ideology. Presents a depressing picture of the tribe, after assimilation with the white culture. Worth reading, with an excellent bibliography.

Gale, George. Upper Mississippi: Historical Sketches of the Mound Builders, the Indian Tribes and the Progress of Civilization in the Northwest. Chicago, New York: Clark and Company, 1867. (970.1/G131/p. 164).  Interesting, but brief history of the tribe from the mid 1500’s too 1866. Information is mostly relevant to pre-Kansas times.

Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824 – 1880: Historical Sketches.
New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974. (970.5/H 551/p. 210).  Brief discussion of the Wyandot sub agency from 1839 – 1863, and 1870 – 1872. Names of agents and appointment dates are listed. May be of some value.

“History of the Wyandot Indian Nation.” (K/970.1/MSS/no. 5).  A history of the tribe, located on 10 bronze tablets, at the entrance of the Huron Indian Cemetery, 7th and Ann Ave., Kansas City, Kansas. Might be of benefit.

History-Wyandotte County. (Coll 738/Box 1).  Notes on the history of Wyandotte County, the Wyandotte Indians, and the Wyandotte Mission, from the manuscripts of Lucy B. Armstrong.

“The Huron Cemetery.” Kansas City Gazette Globe. Nov. 9, 1915. (Microfilm reel: K 70).  Brief, but interesting article about the cemetery and the long fight to preserve it, by two young women of Wyandot ancestry. Worth reading.

“Huron Place Cemetery, Kansas City, Kansas.” 62nd Congress. 2nd Session. 1912.
(Report no. 328/Ser. Doc. 1120).  A letter from a Mr. Curtis, to the U.S. Senate, urging the passage of a bill to keep the cemetery as a national monument, despite the wording of previous treaties. Interesting.

“Investigation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs”. House Report. Washington: 1953.
82nd Congress. 2nd Session. (Ser. no. 11582/p. 1022).  A list of treaties between the U.S. government and the Wyandotte tribe, denoting the facts of each treaty. Very interesting and worth reading. Could be used as a reference source.

“Investigation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs”. House Report. Washington. 1953.
82nd Congress. 2nd Session. (Ser. no./11582/p. 133).  Compilation of material related to the Indians of the United States, including materials, laws, and treaties, affecting all Indians. Very informative and an excellent source of information. See Appendix II.

Irvin, Kathleen. “Removal of the Wyandot Indians.” In Washburn University History. 1972. Washburn University Research papers. (Coll. 659/Box 3).  Well-written history of the tribe, especially about their settlement in Kansas and the slavery issue. Contains a brief, good bibliography and excellent footnotes. Worth reading.

Journal of William Walker, Provisional Governor of the Nebraska Territory, 1845 – 1854. (MS/1110.03).  The writing contains a brief history of the tribe and includes a map of the Wyandott purchase in 1843. Excellent footnotes.

Kapler, Charles J. Indian Affairs, Laws, and Treaties. Government Printing Office.
Washington, D.C. 1904. (970.5/Un3TK/v. 2).  As a former clerk to the Committee of Indian Affairs, the author presents exact treaties between the Wyandot and the U.S. Government, from 1786 – 1867. The treaties provide an interesting look at the assimilation of the tribe into the white culture, and the price the Indian had to pay. Worth reading.

Klopfenstein, Carl. G. “The Removal of the Wyandots from Ohio". The Ohio Historical Quarterly. Vol. 66 no. 2 April, 1957. (977.106/Oh3/v.66/p. 119).  An excellent account of the movement of the tribe west, with new facts and data. Well-written and containing excellent footnotes. A must read.

“Lucy Armstrong Papers, 1846 – 1858.” History Indians-Wyandotte. (Box 7/XXV/B).  The letters are difficult to read, but denote a strong sense of the tribe’s belief in the anti-slavery movement. There are also letters to family, friends, and the government. Interesting.

Marsh, Thelma. Moccasin Trails to the Cross. Sandusky, Ohio: United Methodist Historical Society of Ohio, 1974. (970.3/-W97/M354/p. 117).  Written as a history of the mission to the Wyandot Indians, the book presents an interesting view of the cross cultural ideas relating to religion. There is an excellent chapter on the Wyandot migration to Kansas. Worth reading, with an excellent bibliography.

“Memorial of the Chiefs and Headmen of the Wyandott Indians.” In 37th Congress,
3rd Session
. 1863. (Misc. Doc. no. 15/Ser. Doc. 1150).  A letter to the U.S/ Congress, requesting to be paid for losses to white settlers. Includes references to past treaties and claims. Interesting and informative.

Merwin, Ray E. ‘The Wyandot Indians.” Kansas State Historical Society, 1905-1906.
Topeka: State Printing Office, 1906. (SP/906/K13/v.9/p. 73).  A revealing history of the tribe from the 1600’s to the 1890’s. Well-written, with many facts, including the early cultural assimilation of the tribe. Definitely worth reading.

Morgan, Lewis Henry. The Indian Journals, 1859 – 1862. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1993. (970.1/M823/p. 67).  Although some new facts are presented, i.e. numbers and names of clans, chiefs, and war chiefs; little information can be retrieved from this source.

Nieberding, Velma. The History of Ottawa County. Marceline, Missouri: Walsworth Publishing Co., 1983. (976.61/-Ot8/N55/p. 309).  A very brief history of the Kansas settlement, including the claim for burial grounds in Kansas City, Kansas. Interesting.

“Petition of the Wyandott Indians.” In 37th Congress, 2nd Session. 1862. (Misc. Doc. No, 16./Ser. Doc. 1150).  A letter to the U.S. Congress, requesting a final settlement of all business transactions with the U.S. Government, Interesting in that the tribe has contacted lawyers to represent them. Very Informative.

Plank, M.A. Mrs. “A Wyandotte Legend.” The Agassiz Companion. Wyandotte, Kansas. Vol. II December, 1857, no. 2. (K/505/Ag. 1/p. 134).  A poem explaining the hostilities between the Wyandot and Seneca tribes, and their move to the west. Brief, but interesting.

Powell, J.W. First Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1879 – 1880. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1881. (572/Sm 6/p. 57). An excellent source of information concerning tribal society, the government and the laws within the tribe. Worth reading.

Reports of the Commissioner of the General Land Office. Washington: William A. Harris, Printer. 1858. (336.1/Un3a/1857/p. 198).  From Lecompton, Kansas Territory, Oct. 1857, a list of the Wyandott reserves, with names, dates, and locations. Includes a map of the various Indian reservations in Kansas, which shows how small the Wyandott reservation was, compared to other tribes. Interesting.

“Report of the Secretary of the Interior.” In 39th Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, 1866. (Ser. Doc. no. 12/p. 252).  Letters from the Office Superintendent to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, concerning the sale of Wyandott lands, and the movement of the tribe to Oklahoma. Interesting, especially the vocabulary used to describe some of the Indians.

Smith, Robert E. “The Final Removal of the Wyandot Indians.” Westport Historical Society. Kansas City, Missouri. June, 1972. Vol. 8, no. 1. (977.81/-J13/W52/p. 3).  A well-written historical perspective of the move to Kansas, including financial data relating to treaties with the U.S. Government and the taxation of Indian lands. Also noted is the tribe’s activity during the Civil War. Contains an excellent bibliography. Worth reading.

Smith, Robert E. Keepers of the Council Fires: A brief History of the Wyandot Indians.
Joplin, Missouri: Missouri Southern State College, 1974. (K/970.3/Pam./v.1/no. 1).  Well-written work, denoting the tribe’s history from the mid 1500’s to 1937. Treaties, culture, and the role of the Wyandot in American history are discussed. Short, but good bibliography. Worth reading.

Smith, Robert E. The Wyandot Indians, 1843 – 1876. PhD. Dissertation. Oklahoma State University. May, 1973. (K/970.3/W 97/Sm 64).  An excellent, well-written source of information concerning the historical, social, cultural, and political aspects of the Wyandot Indians in American history. Although the above years are the main foci, there is some discussion of the tribe, up to 1973. The work contains an excellent bibliography and informative footnotes. Important information about Kansas City, Kansas is included. Definitely, a must read.

“Taxation of the Wyandotte Indian Lands in Kansas.” In 37th Congress, 1st Session. (Misc. Doc. no. 7/Ser. Doc. 1115).  A copy of the act providing for taxation of the Wyandotte lands in Wyandotte County, 1861. Interesting but, not overly informative.

“Tells of the Wyandottes”. Jan. 17, 1907. (K/BB/Kansas Scrap Book Biography/TA-TH/vol. 3/p. 361).  Article discusses the Kansas history of the Wyandot’ with the oldest living survivor of the tribe, the daughter of Chief Silas Armstrong. Present a very interesting ,first person account.

Treaty Between the Unites States and the Wyandott Indians. 1855. (970.1/Pam/v. 12/no. 20).  The treaty denotes relinquishment of lands to become U.S. citizens and other stipulations. Very interesting and worth reading.

Wyandott Indian Council records: 1855 – 1871. (Microfilm reel: MS 1110.02).  Well kept records denoting the activities of the tribe over the above years. Records divulge tribal laws, finances, voting records, and an excellent knowledge of council formalities. Although lengthy, it is worth reading.

Tabor, Milton. “This Day in Kansas History. “ Topeka Capital Journal, 1954. (K/978.1/T114/p. 26).  Articles denoting the Wyandot Indians becoming U.S. citizens, in 1855, a Wyandot Indian becoming governor of Nebraska, 1853., and the Nebraska-Kansas Provisional Government of 1853. Though brief, the articles are definitely worth reading.

U.S. Bureau of Indian affairs. Final Roll of the Wyandotte Tribe of Oklahoma. 1956. (970.3/W97u).  Importance is primarily directed at genealogical references. The roll lists members of the tribe from across the country.

Whitlock, E. D. “The Wyandot Mission”. Ohio Archeology and Historical Quarterly.
Columbus, Ohio. Vol. X October 1901, no. 2. (977.106/Oh3/v.10/p. 195).  While mostly religious in nature, this work does present some historical and cultural beliefs of the tribe. Written by an individual who lived among the tribe, the article is very interesting.

“Wise Indians Were These”. In Railroads Clippings, 3:23. (K 385./Clip./v. 3/p. 23).  Discusses the important role of the Wyandot, in relation to the expansion of the railroads west. Interestingly written, with some new information.

“Wyandotts.” History Indians-Wyandotte. (Box 7/XXV/A).  A brief history of the tribe from 1842 – 1880, providing details of their views on slavery, and the U.S. Government. Also a general report of the tribe. Worth reading. This box also contains a copy of the civil action by Lucy B. Armstrong, widow of John Armstrong, against the children of same, in 1859. Interesting.

“Wyandot and Shawnee Indian Lands in Wyandotte County, Kansas.” Kansas State
Historical Society. 1919-1922
. Topeka: Kansas Printing office, 1923. (SP/906/
K13/v. 15/p. 103).  Based on the Treaty of 1855, this historical writing of Wyandot titles to lands, includes a list of families, divided into competent and incompetent individuals, the difference not being explained. Worth reading, as names are associated with the allotments.